While the globalization process is a complex and
multidimensional phenomenon, some of its most visible and influential aspects are economic in nature. This chapter contains an analysis, from a global standpoint, of major trends in trade, investment, finance, macroeconomic regimes and international labour mobility. This analysis covers a long period in history, from the last quarter of the nineteenth century to the present, and is structured according to the successive phases of globalization identified in the preceding chapter. The first section focuses on the development of trade and
investment flows among the principal regions of the world, with emphasis on the variable relationship between the expansion of trade and economic growth, the emergence of integrated production systems underpinning the operations of transnational corporations, the primary challenges faced by developing countries as a result of these global trends and the creation of an international institutional framework in the area of trade. The second section contains an analysis of the most important changes that have taken place in international finance and macroeconomic regimes. After reviewing major historical
developments in this area, the study focuses on the volatility and contagion which have characterized capital flows in the third phase of globalization, and finally analyses the magnitude and composition of capital flows to developing countries.
Chapter 2PART I: GLOBAL OUTLOOK
The last section presents an overview of the phenomenon of international labour migration. It includes a comparison of the relative magnitude of migratory flows and the regulatory environment in which they took place during the different phases of globalization, as well as the various global patterns of origin and destination of migrants.
I. International trade and investment
1. International trade and economic growth: a variable...