Gujarat is a state in India. Its capital is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad. Gujarat is home to the Gujarati-speaking people of India
The name Gujarat has been derived from 'Gujaratta' meaning the land of Gurjars or Khazars. The Gurjars were originally dwellers of Punjab. They passed through Punjab and settled in some parts of Western India, which came to be known as Gujarat. Gujarat then came under the control of Mughals and the Marathas in the mid 18th century followed by British in 1818. The British rule continued till India got her independence in 1947. The first headquarters of the British East India Company was in Surat in Gujarat.
Gujarat has given birth to many great leaders who have played significant roles in shaping modern India. Prominent among them were Shri Dadabhoy Nauroroji, the grand old man of the freedom struggle, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the architect of a united India and Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the Nation were all from Gujarat. These great men had carried the torch of national freedom and integration inculcating qualities like tolerance, brotherhood, non-violence and patriotism amongst Indians. Other leaders included K.M.Munshi, Narhari Parikh, Mahadev Desai,and Ravi Shankar Vyas.
During British rule, Gujarat was a part of the erstwhile Mumbai state. But in 1960, the 'Gujarati' population decided to form a separate union for which there was formation of two new states, namely Gujarat and Maharashtra. Gujarat became a state of Indian union on May 01, 1960 because of this bifurcation. The first capital of Gujarat was Ahmedabad but the capital was shifted to Gandhinagar in 1970.
Economic Development of Gujarat:
Economic Activity: Services- Manufacturing- 34%; Services- 37%; Agriculture -29% Investor Profile: Govt. 47%; Foreign 3.6%; Indian 49%
Investment Strengths: Business friendly state policies, responsive local administration, extensive network of roads, ports, railways and telecom in most parts, well developed financial structure. State priority areas: Infotech, Gems/ jewellery; Electronics, garments; food processing; leather Cell phone/ 100 persons: 0.98
Railway track length /00 sq km: 2.7
Definition of Economic Development
Economic development refers to a sustainable increase in living standards. It implies increased per capita income, better education and health as well as environmental protection.
Major Indicators of Economic Development
➢ Gross Domestic Product
➢ Sector Wise Groth Rate
➢ Industrial Growth
➢ Political Stability
➢ Infrastructure Development
➢ SEZ(Special Economic Zone)
Gross Domestic Product:
Gujarat is one of the most prosperous states of India owing to its agricultural productivity and industrial development. The per capita GDP of Gujarat is 2.5 times the country’s average GDP. The state leads the country in various industrial sectors namely, textiles, engineering, chemicals, petrochemicals, drugs and pharmaceuticals, dairy, cement and ceramics, gems and jewellery. In the past few years from 1994 to 2002, Gujarat’s State Domestic Product (SDP) has been rising continuously at an average growth rate of 12.4 % per annum. Ahmedabad, the largest city of Gujarat is also an industrial hub of India. The city is known for its textile mills and pharmaceutical industries. Some other important industrial centres of the state include Rajkot, Surat, Gandhinagar, Baroda and Jamnagar.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is one of the primary measures used by decision-makers, financial and other institutions to evaluate the health of the economy. An increase in real GDP is interpreted as a sign that the economy is doing well, while a decrease indicates that the economy is not working at its full capacity. Real GDP is linked to other macro economic variables such as employment, economic cycles, productivity and long-term economic...