The Tang dynasty ruled for two hundred and eighty nine years, from 618 to 907 C.E. The empire extended into the west to parts of Tibet, the Red River Valley to the south, and Manchuria to the north. The second emperor, Tai-tsung, forced his father to abdicate the throne to him after murdering his brothers in 626 C.E. He made the government smaller, which saved money in case of famine and to provide farmers economic relief in case of droughts or floods. Civil service exams were established once again, resulting in smarter court officials. Tai-tsung’s army defeated the Turks in 657 C.E and they gained territory in Korea and central Asia. During this period, trade flourished along the Silk Road and woodblock printing, along with gunpowder was invented. From 843 to 845 C.E. a new emperor Wu-tsung tried to eliminate Buddhism from Chinese culture. These attempts only lasted a short time but the religion never recovered in China, and this led to conflicts with foreign traders. After 836 C.E. foreigners were no longer welcome in China and trade came to an abrupt halt that practically destroyed the economy. In the 9th century, divisions within the central government began feuding which led to political plots, scandals, and assassinations. After several collapses around 880 C.E. the Tang dynasty was destroyed.
After the fall of the Tang dynasty, a military commander named Zhao Kuangyn started the Song dynasty in 960 C.E. It ruled for 3 centuries and was destroyed in the 1279 C.E. by the Mongols. The emperor established imperial policies to avoid the mistakes of the Tang, and because of this the Song never matched them in political or military strength. Only civil officials who had passed the service exams could be governors, and the rulers promoted Confucian thinking. Libraries and schools for teaching Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism were built also. At the start of the 10th century, a confusion scholar tried to correct the defects of the imperial order, but after the...
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