SP13 Exam 2 Review
The exam will have 5, 10-point questions on it from the questions below.
1. The evolution of economic organization from hunter-gatherer to settled agriculture to more complex civilizations proceeded at vastly different paces in different parts of the world. Explain why the pace of development on the Eurasian landmass was so much more rapid than in Africa and the Americas. Describe and explain Australian development before European settlement. ❖ Eurasian Landmass
• Technology spread quickly because of the East-West axis • Home to the majority of domesticated animals ❖ Africa and the Americas
• Technology spread slowly because of the North-South tendencies of the Continents • Very few domesticated animals
Central America developed relatively quickly
• Many competing societies led to innovation
• Highly urbanized civilizations in central America, but as you move north and south, less urban and more hunter gathers
a. Much longer persistence of hunter gatherer societies. b. Native Australia had no farmers or herders牧人, no writing, no metal tools and no governments other than tribes when visited by Europeans in the 17th Century. c. Even smaller societies on even smaller island died out. d. Secluded from other nations and peoples
e. Very low population density which led to lower levels of innovation among the natives f. No domesticated animals
2. According to Jared Diamond, the ability to grow what types of crops are most favorable to economic development? Why? List and briefly explain 3 characteristics of an animal that Diamond sees as necessary for domestication of that species. • Types of crops are most favorable to economic development o Wheat, which provides about a fifth of all the calories they eat. o Barley
o Because their seeds were the biggest, tastiest or easiest to harvest. o These cereal grasses were hardy enough to survive, and they can be stored. • 3 characteristics of an animal
o Can start giving birth in their first or second years and they will have one or maybe two offspring a year, so they have high productivity. o Behaviorally they need to be social animals, meaning that the males and the females and the young all live together as a group and they also have an internal social hierarchy, which means that if humans can control the leader, then they will also gain control over the whole herd or whole flock. o It needs to get along with humans. Some animals don’t have the temperament to live on a farm.
3. What is the Malthusian Model? Explain how it describes population changes in Europes’ First and Second Logistics. Give examples of positive checks and preventative checks.
4. Describe the impact of the efforts of Prince Henry the Navigator (1418-1460) on the Portugese economy? What was the impact on intercontinental trade of the successful voyage of Vasco da Gama (1497-1499)? Contrast Portuguese colonization of Africa and Asia with that of Spain in the New World.
5. Why did the manorial system persist so much longer in Russia than in Northwest Europe? Why did Italy’s economic development lag behind that of Northwest Europe? Why did Scandinavia’s development also lag? • Russia
o Very sparsely populated, about 2 people per square kilometer. o All the favorable conditions for serfdom-slavery described by Domar. ▪ Free land
▪ Land owning gentry with weapons
▪ Thus, serfdom (bound labor)
o Additionally had very coercive centralized authority to impose slavery. o Very...