Ecology: Petroleum and Caspian Sea

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  • Topic: Petroleum, Kazakhstan, Aral Sea
  • Pages : 8 (2479 words )
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  • Published : February 10, 2011
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Department of oil-gas industry
Oil-gas industry division

Safety in Petroleum Industry”(Ecological Management)

ISW
Ecological problems of Kazakhstan.

Done By: Zhenis Seitekov
Checked By: Bigaliyev Aitkhazha
Bigaliyevich

Almaty 2011
Contents:

• Introduction
• National environmental issues
• The impact of landfills military space systems and test • Radioactive contamination
• Oil and ecology
• Air pollution
• Aerosol pollution of the atmosphere
• Conclusion
• Literature

 Introduction
People from ancient times has an impact on the environment. As a result, this versatile centuries of human activity has left a deep mark on modern soil and vegetation, air and drinking (water) environment and wildlife. Man depletes non-renewable natural resources and threatens the production of those items that could be renewed. It changes the nature of the environment, upon which his physical and mental existence as biological and social phenomenon. Environmental pollution is becoming more acute, alarming. Barbarous, destructive attitude of the central departments of natural resources of Kazakhstan led 70-90. to the environmental crisis in the country, take in some regions of the catastrophic nature. One of the toughest environmental problems is the radioactive contamination of the territory of Kazakhstan. Nuclear tests conducted since 1949 at the Semipalatinsk test site resulted in contamination of vast territories in central and eastern Kazakhstan. The country has had five landfills, where nuclear tests were conducted in the vicinity of its borders is a Chinese Lop Nor test site. Radiation background in Kazakhstan increased as a result of the formation of ozone holes in spacecraft launch from the Baikonur. Huge challenge for Kazakhstan of the radioactive waste. Thus, UMP Factory has amassed about 100,000 tons of waste contaminated with uranium, thorium, and waste storage facility located in the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk. In Kazakhstan there are only 3 repository for nuclear waste and they are all located in the aquifer. That seriousness of the problem of radioactive contamination has led to one of the first laws of sovereign Kazakhstan was the decree of 30.08.1991, the banning of tests at the Semipalatinsk test site. One of the most serious environmental problems of Kazakhstan became the depletion of water resources. Increased consumption of fresh water, primarily for irrigated agriculture led to salinization and depletion of natural water sources. Particularly disastrous was the shallowing of the Aral Sea due to irrational use of water Amu Darya and Syr Darya. The sea level dropped by 13 meters, who uncovered the seabed turned into a salt desert. The annual dust storms spread the salt on the vast territory of Eurasia. The decrease mirrors the sea has led to a change in wind direction and climatic characteristics of the region. A similar situation exists in Lake Balkhash, the level of which is 10-15 years fell by 2.8 -3 meters. At the same time, the rise of the Caspian Sea, caused by ill-conceived decision stripping the Gulf of Kara-Bogazgol. Already flooded huge areas of coastal grazing areas and promising oil-bearing areas. Zyryanovsk lead and Leninogorsk polymetallic complexes have led to contamination of the Irtysh. Alarming environmental situation prevailing in the valley of the rivers Ili and the Urals. In the critical condition of the land resources of Kazakhstan, depleted fertile arable land, pasture becomes desert. Remains a serious problem of air pollution, especially in large industrial centers. National priority in the "Strategy 2030" RK include: environmental safety, rational use of natural resources, environmental well-being of citizens and some of the problems of social ecology. Reaction to the first environmental crises and catastrophes was expressed in the "Environment Act" of 1997. The problem of ecology and conservation - is...
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