ECOLOGY AND ADMINISTRATION:
Ecology in simple words relates to 'Environment'. And this environment includes physical,social and cultural aspects. Environment is the largest system,the rest and others like political systems,administrative systems,etc are all sub systems who work under it. It influences its sub systems and vice versa. They both have to adjust to each other and also reform and change each other from time to time. So they are interdependent and not mutually exclusive of each other.
Administration is seen as one of the most significant aspect of any societal arrangement as it makes possible the fulfilment of governmental function. It has been observed that administration of any state happens to be an expression of various unique factors existing in society and is inter dependant over other arrangements in the society that provides the stability of all structure in a society. Various scholars like George Orwell in their writings like 'Shooting an Elephant' books have given case studies of how they have seen practically that the administrative systems in different parts of the world perform differently in order to suit the environment or ecology they are set in.
So, basically ecology of public administration talks about the relationship between administration and the environment it is set in and how they affect each other.
Ecology affects the administrative system both internally as well as externally.
Internally it affects when we take note that in actuality the administrator is a man of society and thus when he is taking an administrative decision,he will definitely be influenced by his values,societal and cultural attitude,etc to quite an extent and that needs to be taken into account.
Externally also the ecology/environment affects the administrative organisation by means of social values and rules,culture of the society,dependence on other important subsystems prevalent in the society,etc where the administration and politics have to be in context of the people's wishes and demands and if they go against it will face a possibility of overthrow and revolt anytime.
Therefore,one can very conveniently understand from the above mentioned,the delicate and crucial relationship between Ecology and Administration.
Ecology in public administration was primarily introduced by Professor John M. Gaus, one of the early pioneers of public administration. In his introduced concepts, he emphasized that the public administration including its development as well as its activities were influenced by its setting or ecology. According to Gaus, the plans, programs, policies, and design of public administration is influenced by factors concerning the physical environment or ecology, and that any structure and living thing existing in a given area has an interrelationship with the surrounding environment. In practice, this concept means that when building a structure, an individual must plan all aspects of the construction, from the materials needed for the structure, the actual area where it will be constructed in relation to the people residing in the area and the physical environment existing. This concept also means understanding the impact of the structure to the social relationships of people in that area and what specific technologies are being used and how it influences and impacts the inhabitants of that environment
The ecological approach to Public Administration was propagated popularly by Fred W. Riggs who studied administrative systems in different countries( emphasis on developing countries) and why there was a vast amount of disconnect among them while applying the Americanised theories of Public Administration and how they coped up. He found that the main reason for this uniqueness of administrative systems in the world is the environment that they are set in. For eg. Division of world economies into North-South Economy where North Economies are the erstwhile colonial and...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document