Ecology Final Review

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Quiz 1
Tuesday, September 20, 2011
10:59 PM
1. Ecology
o The study of interactions of organisms with their environment 2. Ecosystems
o Organisms and their interactions with one another as well as their interactions with the environment o Ecosystems are like puzzles; if you disturb one part, you disturb others o Energy maintains an ecosystem

3. Environment
o 2 parts
• Biotic Part
▪ Living organisms
• Abiotic Part
▪ Non living things such as soil, H2O, nutrients, sunlight 4. Energy
o Ability to do work
o Comes from food molecules (forces that hold molecules together) o If you break molecules apart, you release energy
o Plants can make their own food however animals cannot o Both plans and animals can break food down to get energy 5. Matter
o Anything that takes up space
• Composed of an element
6. Element
o Cannot be broken down any further by ordinary chemical means o Composed of atoms
o Atoms
• Composed of 3 basic particles
▪ A proton which has a positive charge and a weight of 1 ▪ A neutron which has no charge and a weight of 1 ▪ An electron which has a negative charge and a weight of 0 o Different elements have different number of protons

• Number of protons in an element is the atomic number o The weight or mass of an element is equal to the number of protons and number of neutrons o In an element, the # of protons is always the same

• The number of neutrons can vary
• The number of electrons is usually equal to the number of protons o Electrons circle nucleus in distinct orbit
• Referred to as shells
• First shell holds 2 and all after hold 8
• Inner most shells fill first
• Any element with outermost shell not filled to the max is reactive • Any element with outermost shell filed tends to be stable • Elements tend toward being stable
7. Ion
o Charged element
o Elements usually have no charge due to protons equaling electrons, however, they can become charged o An element that loses and electron becomes positive and one that gains and electron becomes negative 8. Acid

o Releases H ions when put in H20
o Substances in the atmosphere can react with H20 and make acidic substance 9. Base
o Releases OH ions in H20
10. pH
o Measures the acidity of a substance
Screen clipping taken: 9/20/2011, 11:26 PM
o Example of neutral substance = pure h20 and blood
o Lemon juice = 2
o Coffee = 5
o Ammonia =11
11. Acidic Rain
o Causes bodies of water to become acidic
• This can harm organisms living in the aquatic environment along with crop plants and native vegetation 12. Isotopes
o Different forms of the same element
o Same number of protons but different number of neutrons o Some isotopes are unstable and breakdown of "decay" and release energy into the form of radioactivity 13. Half Life
o Time it takes for one half the amount you started with to decay o Different radioactive isotopes have different half lives o Ex
• Start with one gram, .5 will decay then after another half life, .5--> .25. o Some bonds that contain a lot of energy are C-H Bonds o Consumption of food breaks down high energy bonds

14. Energy
o Law of thermodynamics
• Energy cannot be recycled
• Once you use it, you can not get it back
• Transfer of energy, some is always lost as heart ▪ Transfer is never 100% efficient
15. Types of Nutrition
o Producers (autotrophs)
• Make their own food
• 2 kinds
▪ Photosynthetic
• Capture sunlight and convert it...
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