Eco Terms

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Joint Venture – A contractual agreement joining together 2 or more parties for the purpose of executing a particular business undertaking. All parties agree to share in the profits and losses of the enterprise. Examples – Sony Ericson is a joint venture by the Japanese consumer electronics company Sony Corporation & the Swedish telecommunications company Ericson to make mobile phones.

Merger - Merger refers to combination of two entity through mutual negotiation to form a third company also known as a Merger of Equals. Reliance Communication merged its telecoms tower business with GTL infrastructure Ltd for USD 11 billion. Horizontal Merger

Vertical Merger
Product Extension Merger
Marketing Extension Merger

Acquisition – Acquisition refers to acquiring of a target company's controlling interest or asset. The target company can dissolve and operate under the acquirer name. Bharti Airtel acquired Kuwait based Zain Telecom's African business for USD 10.7 billion. Reliance Industries acquired Infotel broadband for USD 1 Billion. The generic drug unit of Piramal Health care was acquired by USA based drug maker Abbot Laboratories (ABT) for USD 3720 million.

* Amalgamation - Amalgamation is the merger of one or more companies with another company or the merger of two or more companies to form one company. Maruti Motors operating in India and Suzuki based in Japan amalgamated to form a new company called Maruti Suzuki (India) Limited. Tata Sons operating in India and AIA Group based in Hong Kong amalgamated to form a new company called TATA AIG Life Insurance.

Conglomerate - A conglomerate is a combination of two or more corporations engaged in entirely different businesses that fall under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries. Often, a conglomerate is a multi-industry company. * General Electric - GE does everything from consumer electronics to appliances, jet engines, massive electric...
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