UNIVERSITY OF CONSTANCE FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY DEPT. OF ENGLISH AND AMERICAN LITERATURE
MONICA O. V. IKE
1st EXAMINER: Dr. M. REIF-HÜLSER 2nd EXAMINER: Dr. Prof. ASSMANN
CONSTANCE, APRIL 1998
I want to express my gratitude to all the people who somehow have been a help and an encouragement in this work. To my parents for allowing me to come to Germany for further studies. To my examiners Prof. Assmann and Dr. Monika Reif-Hülser, but espacially to Dr. Reif-Hülser, for all her encouragements and support not only to make this project a success, but also to help me finish my studies here successfully. My gratitude goes to all my friends, relatives and acquaintances, who prayed me through this work, May God reward you all.
1. i. ii. iii. 2. i. 3. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. 4. INTRODUCTION WHAT IS CULTURE HENRY JAMES’S CONCEPT OF CULTURE CULTURE SYNONYMOUS WITH CIVILISATION? THE LIFE HISTORY OF HENRY JAMES HIS WORKS CLASH OF CULTURE IN EACH OF THE THREE NOVELS BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE PORTRAIT OF A LADY CLASH OF CULTURE IN THE PORTRAIT OF A LADY BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE WINGS OF THE DOVE THE CLASH OF CULTURE IN THE WINGS OF THE DOVE BRIEF SUMMARY OF DAISY MILLER THE CLASH OF CULTURE IN DAISY MILLER THE COMPARISON OF THE CLASH OF CULTURES IN THE PORTRAIT, THE WINGS AND DAISY MILLER CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY
1 5 8 12 16 18 21 21 24 35 37 44 45
47 58 60
The Portrait of a Lady is said to be James’s masterpiece, while Daisy Miller recorded more success among his short stories. The Wings of the Dove came later as a sort of completion of what James started in The Portrait of a Lady so to say. It seemed as if James, after the overwhelming success he procured with Daisy Miller, got more ‘wind in his sails’ to dare to make a big step into writing a big novel. It was quoted that he wrote his big brother, William; “ I have determined that the novel I write this year shall be big”. 1 The Portrait of a Lady is indeed big, it is said to be the biggest of James’s novels, and the beginning of his writing of big novels then after it, he wrote many other big novels e.g. The Wings of the Dove. Even though it was started in 1878, the year that Daisy Miller was published, it was after a short while suspended at the favour of Washington Square and later continued in 1880 on his visit to Florence. It was then published in 1881, whereas The Wings of the Dove came 12 years later in 1902. It is astonishing that such a wide gap exists between the time of the writing of the two novels, The Portrait of a Lady and The Wings of The Dove, yet one major international theme, ‘the American girl or American young lady in Europe’ runs through the two novels and even in such an obvious way, also in Daisy Miller which was the foremost of the three novels. According to James himself in his preface to The Wings of the Dove, he says it “represents to my memory a very old - if I shouldn’t perhaps say a very young motive...”.2 THE WINGS OF THE DOVE published in 1902 represents to my memory a very old- if I shouldn’t perhaps say a very young - motive; I can scarce remember the time when the situation on which this long-drawn fiction mainly rests was not vividly present in me.
Henry James; The Portrait of a Lady; New York, 1975; Pg.vii Henry James; The Wings of the Dove; New York, 1978; Pg. 2
Whether it was very old or very young only James can really say, but the idea which was born in him or the motive behind his writings, which was there from his earlier years and mostly portrayed clearly in these three books, has been this young American lady in Europe. In Daisy Miller, she was audacious and innocent, doomed to die, but triumphantly, however in The Portrait of a Lady; she was presumptuous, but innocent, and though she affronts her destiny and...