1. Analyse and explain the principles of eco-architecture in the urban living built-up environment. With reference to at least 4 examples, describe the application of environmentally conscious architecture that has been successfully implemented in Singapore. In light of unprecedented growth and rapid urbanisation in Singapore, it has become a great challenge to ensure that economic growth does not come at a high environmental price. In order to continue pursuing long term economy growth and environmental sustainability, Singapore has developed a national framework and key strategies for its sustainable development. One important part of the framework entails the design principles of eco-architecture in the urban living environment and they are as follows: * Energy efficiency – reduction of energy use
* Water efficiency – reducing water consumption and protecting water quality * Environmental protection – adoption of building design, construction practices and materials that are environmentally friendly and sustainable * Indoor environmental quality – measures taken to provide comfort, well-being and productivity of occupant * Other green features and innovation – any other environmentally friendly and sustainability practices such as operation and maintenance optimization
Located right in the heart of Singapore’s prime shopping belt, its intensive efforts at sustainability is a role model for all. First and foremost, many energy saving initiatives such as the energy recovery wheel, high efficiency cooler and atrium day light design were adopted. These initiatives result in a reduction of energy consumption. In addition, there is the Green Lease and Tenancy Collaboration whereby tenant’s provisions are specified and there is a control on energy usage. Another green aspect available is the carbon offsetting carpark which offset the carbon from vehicles getting into the mall. Not neglecting water efficiency, 313@Somerset utilises NEWater for cooling towers and sprinkler make-up water which reduces overall portable water consumption. Last but not least, there are solar panels to harness the sun’s energy to power carpark lightings and the use of recycled materials, low VOC paint and low emissive materials which facilitates environmental protection. City Square Mall
Being the first mall in Singapore to be awarded BCA Green Mark Platinum Award, City Square Mall leads the eco-architectural scene with its integration of City Green, a 47,000 sq ft urban park. In building the mall, environmentally-friendly materials such as drywall partitions and non-chemical anti-termite system are used. To improve energy efficiency, the building makes use of double glazing glass windows which have high performance and low emissivity, reduce excessive heat entering the building. The doubleglazed glass allows sufficient natural light to enter building and prevents glare and excessive heat from entering. The ground floor and above relies heavily on the induction of natural sunlight into interior spaces through voids. Spacious interior with high ceilings too, relies heavily on natural lighting. Owing to natural lighting, only alternate lights are on. The eco green roof also helps to lower the overall energy usage of the mall with their solar Photovoltaic panels to harness sunlight and rainwater-harvesting utility. High efficiency air conditioning plant system uses pre-cooled air to reduce the overall energy usage. Specially-designed lifts, escalators & travellators which incorporate energy saving features such as auto-slow features and the auto-lighting, can automatically shut down during stand by. All these bring about an estimated energy savings of $2 million yearly. City Square Mall also encompasses water efficiency features such as waterless urinals, rooftop rainwater harvesting system and the recycling of condensate water from the Primary Airhandling Unit to achieve a large reduction in water consumption. The...
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