Eating Habits and Physical Activity Level Monitoring in Republic of Macedonia

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EATING HABITS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS MONITORING AS BASIS FOR A NEW NCDs PREVENTION PROGRAM IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

Vera Simovska - Jarevska*, **, Sasko Martinovski**, Dragan Damjanovski**, Valentina Pavlova**, Daniela Nikolovska-Nedelkoska**, Gjorgji Manceski ***

*Public Health Institutions-Skopje, Institute of Sports Medicine, Nutrition Research Department, Krste Miairkov bb, Skopje 1000, Republic of Macedonia; e-mail: vera.simovska@uklo.edu.mk ; Phone:+38978510780; Fax:+38923239670. **University of Bitola “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Technological and Technical Sciences–Veles, Petre Prlicko 14, Veles 43000, Republic of Macedonia; e-mail: ttfv@uklo.edu.mk . ***University of Bitola “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Economy, 4800 Prilep, Djordje Petrov bb, Republic of Macedonia; e-mail: gmanceski@gmail.com Abstract

Research evidence on health determinants have led to develop a national program for NCDs prevention. Numerous studies have confirmed the role of nutrition and physical activity in preventing main NCDs: CVD, T2DM, cancer and chronic respiratory disease. The aim of the study was to analyze and evaluate the results obtained from the new “cross-sectional” study for eating habits and physical activity levels monitoring related to socioeconomic status of the participants in 2012. The study was conducted in five regions in Republic of Macedonia, including 1600 respondents aged 10 to 64 years. Monitoring was conducted using self-designed questionnaire. Eating habits were surveyed using questionnaires to monitor the frequency of consumption of main food groups during the week (FFQ). Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) was a priority measure in the study. Also, in the study was applied a model for strategic planning in NCD prevention, based on the results of health behaviour survey and analysed using software package. The results indicate that NCDs prevention through improving physical activity levels and changes in eating habits should be focused on changes in food content including availability of whole grain bread, guidelines and policy on food labelling and health claims, marketing and city planning that facilitates active. -------------------------------------------------

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Keywords: NCDs program, eating habits, physical activity levels, socioeconomic -------------------------------------------------
differences.
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Introduction
Four major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the greatest public health problem in the WHO European region, with approximately 86% of all deaths in the region caused by this broad group of

diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and chronic respiratory disease. Nearly four out of five deaths (80%) from NCDs occur in low- or middle income countries. Also, NCDs kill people at a younger age in low and middle-income countries - on average 10 years younger than in high-income countries (Anonymous, 2008a).

NCDs have multifactorial etiology and they are a result of complex interaction between individual characteristics (gender, age, ethnicity, genetic predisposition) together with social, economic and environmental determinants (education, income, living and working condition). They are a consequence of a transition in lifestyles that leads to increased risk of NCDs. The most prominent NCDs are linked to common risk factors: an unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol. Six of the seven key determinants of mortality in developed countries are related to how people eat, drink and move. Diet and physical activity, together with tobacco and alcohol, are key determinants of contemporary public health. Nutrition being one of the...
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