Eastern India has a literacy rate of 59.7, which is much lower than the national literacy rate of 64.8.
While male literacy is lower than the national average, female literacy in the East is much higher than the national average of 43.9. Workers account for 37.1 percent of the population of East
The ratio of both male and female workers is lower than the
averages for India.
The Eastern region of India has a current population of 312 million and represents 28 percent of the total Indian population. The expected growth rate of population for East India over 2007 to 2025 is lower than the expected Indian population growth rate over the same period
USE OF TOBACCO
NEW DELHI: Northern India has the least number of female tobacco users while eastern India leads the pack, according to India's first-ever adult tobacco survey.
Around 20.3% women in India -- at 15 years and above -- use some form of tobacco, says the large scale survey conducted jointly by CDC Atlanta, IIPS Mumbai, WHO and the Union health ministry.
However, northern and southern India record the lowest prevalence -- 3.7% and 13.7%, respectively.
While one in five women in central India consume tobacco, the prevalence is one in three in eastern India.
At 30.8%, the prevalence is also very high in north-eastern India. While in the West, 16.1% women consume some form of tobacco.
In northern India, Jammu and Kashmir has the highest prevalence of female tobacco users (10.3%), Punjab (0.5%), Chandigarh (1.7%) and Delhi (3.7%).
As per the state-wise break-up, Mizoram records the highest number of female tobacco users (62%) followed by Tripura (48%), Nagaland (43%), Manipur (41.8%), Chhattisgarh (41.6%) and Bihar (40.1%).
In eastern India, 19.3% women in West Bengal use tobacco. The corresponding figures are 40% and 36% in Bihar and Orissa, respectively.
In southern India, Tamil Nadu records 8.4% prevalence of tobacco use among women, Karnataka (16.3%) and Kerala (8.5%).
In western India, the prevalence stands at 18.9% in Maharashtra, 11.3% in Gujarat and 4.1% in Goa.
In central India, 12.9% women consume tobacco or tobacco products, Uttar Pradesh (16.9%), Chhattisgarh (41.6%) and Madhya Pradesh (18.9%).
According to the report, released on Tuesday by Union health minister Ghulam Nabi Azad, tobacco use has been found to be inversely related to the literacy levels. Among adults, tobacco use decreases sharply with education. Prevalence of tobacco use decreases from 68% among males and 33% among females with no formal education to 31% among males and only 4% among females with secondary or higher education. Females with no formal education are more likely to smoke.
According to the World Health Organization, women consist about 20% of the world's more than one billion smokers. Both men and women who smoke are prone to cancer, heart disease and respiratory disease. Tobacco also causes additional female-specific cancers and compromises pregnancy and reproductive health.
Experts say 90% of all lung cancer deaths in women smokers could be attributed to smoking. Women who smoke have an increased risk for other cancers, including cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx (voice box), esophagus, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and uterine cervix.
Other experts say scientific studies have also shown that tobacco consumption increases the risk for infertility, preterm delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight, and sudden infant death syndrome.
Postmenopausal women who smoke have lower bone density than women who never smoked. Women who smoke have an increased risk for hip fracture than non- smokers.
The WHO report showed how tobacco companies are continuously...