Philosophy encompasses Western and Eastern studies of human knowledge emphasizing on conditions of finding logical and intellectual answers to questions. Western philosophy strives to find and prove the truth, Eastern philosophy is accepting that the truth is given and strives to find the balance.
Thomas Aquinas was one of the most influential scholastic Western philosophers. His influence is considered to be much how modern philosophy was conceived, whether you were against or agreed with his ideas. Although never finished, his most famous written work was the Summa Theologica; a copulation of all the main theological ideas of the time to include the existence of God, ethics, and Christ. Aquinas believed that the existence of God can be proved in five ways based on reason and revelation. The way of motion: if every moving this were moved by another moving this, then there would be no first mover. If no first mover existed, there would be no other mover and nothing would be in motion. Because things are in motion, whatever is moved must be moved by another and a first mover must exist. The way of causation: The nature of efficient cause follows in an order, first causing intermediate cause. To take away the cause is to take away the effect, therefore it is necessary to admit the first efficient cause (in this case, God). This means you cannot have the latter without the former. The way of Contingency: Things that are possible (or existing) could easily not be (or exist). Despite things do exist, it need not have existed except who would have necessary existence – God. Thus, if God did not exist, nothing else would. The way of Goodness: All natural things possess varying degrees of goodness, truth, nobility and perfections. We must have a source (or cause) of this goodness, therefore the maximum in the genus morality must be something non-human and not in the world which is God (the most perfect being and... [continues]
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