A project in theoretical phonetics of English
Shcherbakova Natalia, group 01
1.Introduction 2.English in East Midlands 1.Vowels 2.Consonants 3.Word Stress 4.Sentence rhythm and intonation 3.Conclusion 4.List of references
Introduction East Midlands, general facts
The East Midlands, in its broadest sense, is the eastern part of central England (and therefore part of the United Kingdom as well).
The East Midlands covers three major landscape areas: The relatively flat coastal plain of Lincolnshire, the river valley of the Trent, the third largest (and longest) river in England, and the southern end of the Pennine range of hills in Derbyshire. The second of these contains several large cities: Nottingham, Leicester, Derby and Doncaster, historically centres based around coal mining and heavy industry. This is one of the drier regions of England.
The East-Midland dialect is very interesting. The northern parts of its dialect area were also an area of heavy Scandinavian settlement, so that northern East-Midland Middle English shows the same kinds of rapid development as its Northern neighbor. But the subdialect boundaries within East-Midland were far from static: the more northerly variety spread steadily southward, extending the influence of Scandinavianized English long after the Scandinavian population had been totally assimilated. In the 13th century this part of England, especially Norfolk and Suffolk, began to outstrip the rest of the country in prosperity and population because of the excellence of its agriculture, and — crucially — increasing numbers of well-to-do speakers of East-Midland began to move to London, bringing their dialect with them.
By the second half of the 14th century the dialect of London and the area immediately to the northeast, which had once been Kentish, was thoroughly East-Midland, and a rather Scandinavianized East Midland at that. Since the London dialect steadily gained in prestige from that time on and began to develop into a literary standard, the northern, Scandinavianized variety of East-Midland became the basis of standard Modern English. For that reason, East-Midland is by far the most important dialect of Middle English for the subsequent development of the language.
The English written and spoken today owes its origins to a mix of the East Midlands and London dialects. The East Midlands dialect was important because it came from the centre of the country and was intelligible to most people. Great numbers of traders, pilgrims and others passed through towns such as Leicester and Nottingham. During the 13th and 14th centuries, large numbers of East Midlanders migrated to London, in turn influencing the standard form of English The East Midlands dialect was a mixture of English and Scandinavian, with a smattering of French. The impact of the Vikings can still be seen today in our version of English that was born on the borders of Mercia and Danelaw. As Dr Elaine Treharne from Leicester University points out, "It is fair to say that the Queen's English has its roots in the towns of the Midlands as much as the palaces of Whitehall!"
Fading of old traditions and huge shiftsin how we. communicate globally. Much of the dialect developed in rural communities and in the industrial heartlands of the region. Mining communities in Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Leicestershire were renowned for their use of dialect. At a time when regions are losing some of their traditional dialect, the East Midlands is keen to retain its cultural identity and linguistic style. Although some words are dying out, East Midlanders are keen to celebrate their local language
Examples of pronunciation:
In Leicester, words with short vowels such as up and last have a northern pronunciation, whereas words with vowels such as down and road sound rather more like a south-eastern accent....
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