The Impact of the Silk Road
The Silk Road at first caused many pastoral groups to form. Eventually, rich families did settleand build large establishments. •
The Silk Road allowed the spread of religions (
see chart above
) such as Nestorian Christianity,Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism. •
The stirrup spread though out the Silk Road. It allowed riders to be much more stable and thuscaused military innovation. i.e. the superiority of the Tang calvary in China. The Indian Ocean Maritime System
The Indian Ocean Maritime System was a society of seafarers established across the IndianOcean and South China Sea. •
This trade system linked a network of sea trade routes from Africa to China. The main playerswere Africans, South Arabian Persian, and the Southern Chinese people (including theIndonesians and Malays). •
Although much of the discoveries of new lands and waters were attributed to famous peoplesuch as Zhang Jian or Hippalus, we must not forget the the indigenous people of these areasalso greatly contributed to their expansions. Origins of Contact and Trade
Madagascar is the world’s fourth largest island.
2000 years ago, people from one of the many Indonesian islands of Southeast Asia establishedthemselves in the mountainous land of Madagascar, 9,500 kilometers from home. •
These people kept much of their traditions but eventually lost most of it. [pic]
The Impact of Indian Ocean Trade
The precious materials wanted in trade included ivory and minerals. •
Evidence of ancient copper mines has been found in Oman in southeastern Arabia. •
However, this volume of trade was less than the amount occurring in the Mediterranean. •
In the Indian area, the ports were small due to geographical problems such as inland monsoonwater not by the sea. •
E India, the Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia afforded more hospitable and densely populatedshores with easier access to inland populations. •
The empires that existed through out this Indus area never bothered to develop as muchmaritime powers as the Greeks or the Phoenocians did. •
The families around the coastal Indian area established bilingual and bicultural systems.
Routes Across the Sahara
Early Saharan Cultures
The Sahara is broken only by the Nile River.
The trans-Saharan Caravan Routes were forced into existence due to the lack of water in manyareas. •
Before the Sahara became dry (pre 2500 B.C.E.), this area was quite wet with a diverse group of animals. •
Many believe that people from Mediterranean civilizations such as the Minoans, Mycenaeans, orRomans may have rode chariots into the Saharan deserts. However, this evidence is lacking. [pic]
Trade Across the Sahara
Traders developed into two groups: the north and south.
The North primarily focused on salt trade.
People from the souther Sahel brought forest and agriculture goods. Sub-Saharan Africa
A challenging Geography
The use of rivers was limited by the many rapids in the rivers. •
The Southern Sahara area was limited and surrounded by many obstacles such as the Niger,Zaire, Senegal Rivers, the Red Sea, the Saharan Desert, etc. •
South of the Sahara are the steppes and savanna rain forests. These places were difficult totraverse. The Development of Cultural Unity
"Anthropologists call “Great Traditions” those that typically include a written language, commonlegal and belief systems, ethical codes, and other intellectual attitudes. They loom large inwritten records as traditions that rise above the diversity of local customs and beliefs commonlydistinguished as “small traditions.”" •
The elite culture in the sub-Saharan area turned the area into a Great Tradition area. •
This area is home to ~ 2000 languages.
African Cultural Characteristics
African culture is shaped by the geographically different conditions of the lands. •
The post ice age time caused the diverse group of people to form. •
Although the population...