(Early River Civilizations)
The four early river valley civilizations were the Sumerian/Mesopotamia, Egyptian, Harappan and Ancient China. All of these civilizations were located on fertile river beds to make planting crops much easier. They all made technological advances in their time span and set the ground for future generations.
The Sumerian civilization also known as Mesopotamia/The Fertile Crescent is located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers….this is how it gets its name the Fertile Crescent. The climate for this civilization is dry except in the area between the rivers. The river flood at least once a year leaving a thick layer of mud called silt behind. There were draw backs to living hear though flooding was often unpredictable and very dry through the summer months. There were also no natural barriers so if you were a village out in the open you were likely to be attacked. Natural resources were also limited. The solutions to some of these problems were; they built irrigation ditches, put up walls and traded with people around them for resources that they lacked. Mesopotamia’s government structure was a city state. Each city in Mesopotamia had its own government, rulers, and warriors. Each city had its own god also in the center of each city-state was a ziggurat a place where that city-state’s god could be worshipped. Even though the cities all shared common culture they all functioned independently. The different rules often kept the ruling in the family for many generations this also known as a dynasty. The religion aspect of this civilization was polytheistic or believed in many gods. There were 3 branches to the social class priests and royalty were on top followed by wealthy merchants and ordinary workers. Women in this civilization were not allowed to attend school making it so they could not read or write unless you were wealthy. Slaves were used and they were not free. This civilization invented one of the first forms of writing...
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