American Academy of Paediatrics defines 1-5 years of age, other defines as birth to 8 years. Children’s bodies and brains grow rapidly during this period of life. Many skills and milestones such as language, physical and social developments are expected to reach at this stage.
Importance of early childhood development
In the first few year, more than 100 billion neurons are formed, they are just like milky way. This process is called neuron proliferation that is about 250,000 neurons are born every minute. Neurogenesis is the formation and development of nerve cells. Synaptogenesis is the forming of synapses, begins early in prenatal life, as soon as neurons begins to evolve.
Historically, formal early childhood education has arisen in response to the needs of middle and upper income group of developed countries. Later on it became a part of the educational system in the Third World. Robert Myers (1992) in his book Twelve Who Survive emphasized that early childhood development is a continuous process it begins from the prenatal period and extends through the entire period of childhood. Therefore, Robert Myers suggests that early childhood care and education should fulfill the needs of the children from birth to eight years. In recent years, behavioral scientists have attempted to understand the developmental process of the young children. Today educational program for young children are also responding to their psycho-social needs. To further probe into the developmental process of the young children, numerous workshops of the experts were conducted in various parts of the world. The major findings of these workshops in a nutshell are:
Many child care centers located all over the world do not adequately focus on child development as a whole, instead custodial care is all that is offered. The sole focus of these centers is on preparation for primary schools. To improve the situation, few countries took the...