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Cellular Respiration
1995:
Energy transfer occurs in all cellular activities. For 3 of the following 5 processes involving energy transfer, explain how each functions in the cell and give an example. Explain how ATP is involved in each example you choose.

Cellular movement
Active transport
Synthesis of molecules
Chemiosmosis
Fermentation

1982:
Describe the similarities and differences between the biochemical pathways of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. Include in your discussion the major reactions, the end products, and energy transfers.

1989:
Explain what occurs during the Krebs (citric acid) cycle and electron transport by describing the following:
a. The location of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain in the
mitochondria.
b. The cyclic nature of the reactions in the Krebs cycle.
c. The production of ATP and reduced coenzymes during the cycle.
d. The chemiosmotic production of ATP during electron transport.

Photosynthesis
1986:
Describe the light reactions of photosynthesis and, for both a C3 and a C4 plant,
trace the path of a carbon dioxide molecule from the point at which it enters a
plant to its incorporation into a glucose molecule. Include leaf anatomy and
biochemical pathways in your discussion of each type of plant.

1982:
Describe the similarities and differences between the biochemical pathways
of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. Include in your discussion the major reactions, the end products, and energy transfers.

Cell
1994:
Discuss how cellular structures, including the plasma membrane, specialized endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeletal elements, and mitochondria, function together in the contraction of skeletal muscle cells.

1992:
A laboratory assistant prepared solutions of 0.8 M, 0.6 M, 0.4 M, and 0.2 M sucrose, but forgot to label them. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D.

Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis, that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions. Include in your answer (a) a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment; (b) the results you would expect from your experiment; and (c) an explanation of those results based on the principles involved. (Be sure to clearly state the principles addressed in your discussion.)

Discuss how cellular structures, including the plasma membrane, specialized endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeletal elements, and mitochondria, function together in the contraction of skeletal muscle cells.

Genetics
1983:
State the conclusions reached by Mendel in his work on the inheritance of
characteristics. Explain how each of the following deviates from these
conclusions:
a. Autosomal linkage
b. Sex-linked (X-linked) inheritance
c. Polygenic (multiple-gene) inheritance

1993:
Assume that a particular genetic condition in a mammalian species causes an
inability to digest starch. this disorder occurs with equal frequency in males and females. In most cases, neither parent of affected offspring has the condition.

(a) Describe the most probable pattern of inheritance for this condition. Explain
your reasoning. Include in your discussion a sample cross(es) sufficient to
verify your proposed pattern.

(b) Explain how mutation could cause this inability to digest starch.

(c) Describe how modern techniques of molecular biology could be used to
determine whether the mutant allele is present in a given individual.

DNA
1990:
Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachments of a
messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending with the
release of the polypeptide from the ribosome....
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