Dutch Republic D.B.Q.
In the middle of the seventeenth century, the Dutch Republic, made up of seven provinces, dominated international trade. However, from 1650 to 1713, the Dutch started facing military conflicts with other countries across Europe. These conflicts threatened Dutch security, unity, and prosperity. Amsterdam was the leading banking and trading center in Europe. There were three main trade routes from the Dutch Republic. The Dutch traded slaves, spices, luxury goods, grain, timber and iron. Although the Dutch dominated trade for a while, a problem arose. England also wanted to make money through trade, but both countries were right next to each other. This began a military conflict with England (Document 1). As the conflict with England began to get more serious, the three Anglo-Dutch Wars were fought. The Dutch seized around 500 English ships and the English seized around 2,000-2,700 Dutch ships (document 3). During the period of 1645-1695, we can steadily see that the percent of voyages made by the Dutch was declining, meaning the percent of other countries’ voyages was rising (document 2). In document 13, the Dutch colonial administrator wrote that “the profits of our East Indian trade have turned into losses”. There was too much competition from the English, French, Portuguese, Chinese and Muslims, that the Dutch couldn’t keep up. With ships being seized and the number of voyages declining, prosperity of the Dutch Republic was going downhill quickly. According to document 12, the national debt of the Dutch Republic rose from 30,000,000 guilds to 148,000,000 guilds, in just 25 years. What was once a dominating trade center was turning into an economic disaster. In 1670, the Treaty of Dover was signed by the king of France. This was a major security threat because France and England were now allies and they were planning on declaring war on the Dutch Republic (document 6). In...
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