Unit 405 Applying theories and principles for planning
and enabling inclusive learning and teaching
Theories and principles for planning and enabling inclusive learning and teaching. This assignment aims to identify and discuss learning and teaching strategies that are particularly effective in meeting learner needs within the military environment. It will review some of the five main areas Behaviourism, Neo Behaviourism, Gestalt, Cognitive, Humanist, and how these can be exploited within our delivery of learning and teaching, that the delivery strategy adopted is suitable to meet the needs of our learners with in the military environment, and to make sure the correct resources are available and ensuring the delivery of well-structured lesson. Reece and Walker (2006) discuss learner and learning: principles and practises and analyses these areas breaking them into four parts. What I will do is look at how these break down and incorporated along with the five main theories and how these can be adopted in teaching and learning within the military.
Principles of Learning.
Learning within a military environment learning it takes two very distinctive routes. Due to the fact the military is an autocratic society and to the nature of its training and learning it could be perceived that Soldiers are treated Neo–behaviourists and certainly a lot of military training would fit the Gagné (1975) eight types of learning. This is true for some of the basic fundamental and core military subjects. However I must also understand that outside of these core fundamental’s we need to be more reflective of the learning Domains. When I look at the delivery of training to soldiers I can see that it falls mainly with in the psychomotor domain and behaviourism, and only as the rise up the ladder of responsibility does the method and delivery model change to incorporate cognitive and affective domains, and a more andragogical model of delivery.
Bloom (19five6) recognises that there are 3 learning domains and classifies certain styles into particular domains. Within the military I can clearly see a distinct pattern with in the delivery and teaching process of soldiers during their career path. Commencing with Psychomotor Domain and then moving onto the cognitive domain, this can be easily identified in military instruction technique EDIP (Explanation/Demonstration/Imitation/Practise) and is associated with basic military training and repetitive instruction this is one of the most exploited domains with in the military examples of this are foot drill/weapon drill through the physical learning spectrum up to and including going into battle, the majority of which is also covered by behaviourism. As a Soldier progresses with in their chosen career specialisation they start to fall into the Cognitive Domain this can easily be seen in military teaching on more in depth course and instructional courses. If we look at Krathwohl et al., (1964) we can see how progression within the military changes how our soldiers learning needs and styles change. I see little of the Affective Domain within Military teaching until the Soldier is getting towards the end of his career and needs to consider life outside the military or seeking promotion to the middle management elements of the military.
The delivery of work based learning with in the Military has many benefits both for the learner and for the tutor, as the majority of the learners have requested to be on program. This is reflected in our success rate as the learners predominantly wish to progress and continue their learning once they have completed the basic level, meaning that most of our learners are highly motivated, and adopt a healthy attitude towards learning. Maslow’s (1962) hierarchy of needs is suggests that there are five basic needs, with in a military environment we can quickly see that of these, four are quickly adhered...