Dry Sliding Wear of Aluminium Composite

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Composites

PII:

ELSEVIER

DRY

SLIDING

WEAR

Science and Technology 57 (1997) 415-435
0 1997 Elsevier Science Limited
Printed in Northern Ireland. All rights reserved
0266-3538/97/$17.00

SO266-3538(96)00167-4

OF ALUMINIUM
REVIEW

R. L. Deuis;

C. Subramanian”

COMPOSITES-A

& J. M. Yellupb

“Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, SA 5095, Australia hCSIRO, Division of Manufacturing Technology, Adelaide Laboratory, SA 5012, Australia (Received

25 February

1996; revised

30 August

alloys and aluminium-based

metal-

matrix
composites
have found
application
in the
manufacture of various automotive engine components
such as cylinder blocks, pistons and piston insert rings
where adhesive wear (or dry sliding wear) is a
predominant process. Materials possessing high wear
resistance (under dry sliding conditions) are associated
with a stable tribolayer on the wearing surface and the
formation of fine equiaxed wear debris. For adhesive
wear, the influence of applied load, sliding speed,
wearing surface
hardness,
reinforcement
fracture
toughness and morphology are critical parameters in
relation to the wear regime encountered by the material.
In this review contemporary
wear theories, issues
related to counterface wear, and wear mechanisms are
discussed. Other areas of research relevant to adhesive
wear of Al-5
alloys and aluminium composites
containing discontinuous reinforcement phases, such as
the role of the reinforcement phase, are also presented.
0 1997 Elsevier Science Limited

Keywords:
metal-matrix
composites,
silicon alloys, dry sliding wear

14 October

1996)

and A&O, in discontinuous particulate or whisker
morphology.
The volume fraction of reinforced
particles or whiskers is generally within the range
lo-30%.
Aluminium alloys, such as the 2000, 5000, 6000 and
7000 alloy series, are the most commonly utilised
materials in composite fabrication. Aluminium composites are widely employed in the aerospace
industry.lm3 Hyper-eutectic
Al-S1 based composites
such as A356 (A1,7Si,0_3Mg) that contain A1203, ZrO,
particles4 or Sic particles’ are used in the fabrication
of automotive engine components. Wear resistance
and operating properties of aluminium cast diesel
pistons are enhanced by the use of aluminium-based
composite piston ring inserts.” These composite inserts
are reinforced with A&O3 whiskers or a combination
of these whiskers (12 vol.%) and carbon fibres
(9 vol.%).’ Aluminium-based
composites have also
been considered as substitute materials for use in the
fabrication of brake rotors, pistons, cylinder liners and
cylinder heads.’ A comprehensive
review of the
current and potential application for cast aluminium
matrix composites in the automotive industry has been
provided by Rohatgi.’
In this review, the terms fibre, whisker and particle
reinforcement are denoted by the symbols f, w and p
respectively.
Unless otherwise indicated quantities
expressed as a percentage imply weight percentage.

Abstract
Aluminium-silicon

1996; accepted

aluminium-

1 INTRODUCTION
Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) exhibit the ability
to withstand high tensile and compressive stresses by
the transfer and distribution of the applied load from
the ductile matrix to the reinforcement phase. In situ
composite structures, such as aluminium containing
silicon in amounts above the solubility limit, are
formed by solidification. However, the compositions
and relative amounts of the two phases are limited to
a narrow range, controlled by growth kinetics and
equilibrium conditions. Artificial composite structures
do not exhibit these limitations in composition. These
MMCs are fabricated
by the addition
of a
reinforcement
phase to the matrix by the use of
several techniques such as powder metallurgy, liquid
metallurgy and squeeze-casting.
The reinforcement
phase is generally one of the...
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