ENL 105 F
Notre Dame University
January 7, 2013
Thesis: Drugs in Europe in 21 century
I. Types of Drugs
A. Definition of Cocaine
B. Definition of Heroin
II. Effects of Drugs And Percentage in Europe
A. Effects of Cocaine
B. Effects of Heroin
C. Statistics And Tends
A. Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Treatments
B. Period of Drug Abuse Treatments
C. European Approach To Drug Rehab
Drugs in Europe
Illicit drugs form an important sector of the world . A drug is a substance which may have dangerous effects when taken or put into a human body. All countries are fighting and trying to stop this phenomenon. Drugs have several types, effects, and treatments. First of all, there are many types of drugs, but the most popular are cocaine and heroin. Cocaine is a strong addictive stimulant drug. The powered hydrochloride salt form of cocaine can be snorted or dissolved in water and then injected or smoked (Harris, 2003). Snorting cocaine is inhaling the powder through the nose where it is absorbed into the bloodstream. Injecting is inserting the drug directly into the bloodstream by using a needle. Smoking is inhaling cocaine smoke into the lungs, where the absorption into the bloodstream is faster. Heroine is an addictive drug that is extracted from morphine and has the color white, brown or black (National, 2010). It is a sticky substance that can be injected, snorted or smoked.
Drugs have a lot of negative effects, especially for cocaine and heroin addicts. Cocaine effects depend on absorption; faster absorption means shorter duration of action. The high from snorting cocaine can last 15 to 30 minutes, but the high from smoking can last only 5 to 10 minutes (Harris, 2003). The faster cocaine is absorbed into the bloodstream and delivered to the brain, the more intense the high. Injecting or smoking cocaine produces a quicker, strong high than snorting (Harris, 2003). Injecting and smoking can last more than snorting. The intensity and duration of cocaine’s effects depend on the route of drug administration. It includes increased energy, reduced fatigue, and mental alertness (Harris, 2003). Cocaine effects, which are physical and mental, depend on the route of administration. It increases alertness, feelings of well-being, energy and motor activity. Mostly, Heroin effects are dangerous, it depresses breathing, thus, overdose can be fatal. Users who inject the drug, risk infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis (National, 2010). That means heroin addicts are in danger, they risk overdose and infectious diseases. The use of heroin may lead to risk of contracting blood-borne suck as HIV and AIDS by sharing of needles. It can also lead to poisoning from contaminants added to dilute heroin (National, 2010). Sharing needles can lead to poisoning and hepatitis for drug users. Effects of heroin include a surge of euphoria and clouded thinking followed by alternately wakeful and drowsy states (National, 2010). These effects attack brain’s function. In Europe, the prevalence rate of problem drug users varies between 2.7 in Greece and 9.0 in UK as rate per 1000 population aged 15-64 (Eastwood, 2010). The average purity of street heroin in UK varies between 30% and 50%, and heroin that has been seized at the border has purity levels between 40% and 60%. The UK, Italy and Spain are on the higher end of the range, whereas Greece, Germany and Hungary are with low rates of problem drug use. East Europe and New Zealand have a high prevalence of injecting drug use (Eastwood, 2010). Overall cocaine in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to varies between countries. Countries with highest usage rates are : the UK, Spain, Italy, and Ireland.
Treatment can help patients addicted to drugs stop using, avoid relapse, and successfully recover their lives. The effectiveness of drug treatment depends on...