The Bedford Handbook
For Bedford / St. Martin’s
Executive Editor: Michelle M. Clark Senior Development Editor: Barbara G. Flanagan Development Editor: Mara Weible Senior Production Editor: Anne Noonan Senior Production Supervisor: Dennis Conroy Executive Marketing Manager: John R. Swanson Editorial Assistant: Alicia Young Copyeditor: Linda McLatchie Text Design: Claire Seng-Niemoeller Cover Design: Donna Lee Dennison Composition: Nesbitt Graphics, Inc. Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley and Sons President: Joan E. Feinberg Editorial Director: Denise B. Wydra Editor in Chief: Karen S. Henry Director of Marketing: Karen R. Soeltz Director of Editing, Design, and Production: Marcia Cohen Assistant Director of Editing, Design, and Production: Elise S. Kaiser Managing Editor: Elizabeth M. Schaaf Library of Congress Control Number: 2009924937 Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002, 1998 by Bedford / St. Martin’s All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher. Manufactured in the United States of America. 4 f 3 e 2 d 1 c 0 b 9 a
For information, write: Bedford / St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000) ISBN-10: 0-312-54430-8 0-312-65268-2 0-312-65269-0 ISBN-13: 978-0-312-54430-0 978-0-312-65268-5 978-0-312-65269-2
(Instructor’s Annotated Edition) (hardcover Student Edition) (softcover Student Edition)
Acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on page 820, which constitutes an extension of the copyright page. It is a violation of the law to reproduce these selections by any means whatsoever without the written permission of the copyright holder.
The Bedford Handbook
Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers
Contributing Authors Tom Jehn
Contributing ESL Specialist Marcy Carbajal Van Horn
St. Edward’s University
BEDFORD / ST. MARTIN’S
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Preface for Instructors
Hacker handbooks have long been recognized as the most innovative and practical college references — the ones that respond most directly to student writers’ questions and challenges. In revising The Bedford Handbook, our goal was to continue to respond to students by helping them make the most of their college writing experiences. Part of our revision plan — crafted with my fellow contributors and Diana Hacker’s longtime editorial team — was to learn ﬁrsthand what’s happening in composition classrooms and writing centers across the country. With our plan in mind, I visited more than thirty-ﬁve colleges and universities to listen to students, teachers, and tutors talk about the challenges facing today’s college writers. Throughout my travels, I heard students puzzle out the unfamiliar elements of academic writing, particularly those related to working with sources. I watched creative teachers show their students how to build arguments, synthesize sources, and strengthen their ideas through revision. I observed writing center tutors responding to students’ questions about thesis statements and research assignments. And I listened, everywhere, for clues about how to develop a better, more useful reference. The eighth edition is inspired by the students, teachers, and tutors at these schools — and by the candid feedback offered by users of The Bedford Handbook’s earlier editions.
Preface for instructors
As you look through this new edition, you’ll ﬁnd many innovations — large and small — that help students make the most of their experience as college writers. For example, new boxes called Making the most of your handbook pull together advice from...