Social studies as a dynamic and problem solving discipline has drug education as one of the emerging areas of study. Drug education intends to expose the learners to uses, abuse and contraindication of drugs. Social studies being an integrated discipline which derives its curriculum contents from many educational curricula encourages teaching and learning of drug issues, abuse, addiction and its health implications.
Review of Related Literature
The earlier studies that are relevant to this research are reviewed based on the below sub-headings:
(1) Theories on Drug Abuse
(2) Concept of Drug Abuse
(3) Causes of Drug Abuse
(4) Effects of Drug Abuse
(5) Control and Management of Drug Abuse
(6) Implications of Drug Abuse for social studies teaching.
Theories of Drug Abuse
The relevant theories to be reviewed are sociological theory, social process theory and gate-way theory.
Sociological Theory of Drug Abuse
Kaplan (1996) explains that sociological theory understand substance abuse as a societal phenomenon, having largely cultural, social and economic origins or ties. Such causes are often external to the individual, that is, they are not biological, genetic or psychological traits possessed by them. Sociological theory utilizes broader and often more abstract phenomenon and concepts to explain drug use and abuse. Sociological theory often identifies how social problems such as poverty, inequality and social disorganizations explain the prevalence of drug use and abuse in society.
Social Process Theory
Social process according to Robbins (2000) is a theory focusing on how people or groups become involved with drugs and how their involvement change over time, and what might initiate the change. Process theory is developmental in the sense that they identify key factors over a period of time, one demarcated by social boundaries and meanings leading to drug related behaviours and consequences.
Gateway Theory of Drug Abuse
The gateway theory states that neighbourhood plays bigger role in slide into hard-drugs and drug abuse. The place where one lives in social company drug abusers keep are other predisposing factors.
Concept of Drug Abuse
Drug abuse is referred to as intake of drugs by an individual as way of medication, over does of the prescribed drug given by medical personnel or taking drugs on an individuals personal interest or influence by some groups of people (Adegbite 2003). Indeed, the term drug abuse is used to indicate excessiveness and frequent consumption of drugs regardless of whether an individual is depending on it or not. Drug abuse often lead to drug addiction. Drug abuse is used as a defense coping mechanism.
Ademola (1980) was of the opinion that the commonly abused drugs are sedatives, barbiturates, amphetamine, valium, cocaine, marijuana etc. drugs of abuse are either natural or synthetic drugs. Natural drugs are derived from plant leaves, barks or roots while synthetic are manufactured through industrial process. There are addictive and non addictive drugs.
Causes of Drug Abuse
The below are some of the reasons why individual abuse the use of drug:
(a) Poor medical knowledge and awareness : Several drug abusers are ignorant of the risks associated with unauthorized drug intake. Lack of adequate knowledge of the consequences of drug abuse could be a predisposing factor (Orija 1999).
(b) Psychological influence: The urge to surpress tension, ill-feelings, emotional disturbances, stress and phobic attitudes could predispose individuals to drug abuse.
(c) Societal problems : This is a circumstance when individual is faced with the challenge of economic hardship,...