Spring 2013Student: .
Chapter 12: Motivation & Emotion
1. Motivation is BEST defined as _____. p. 422
a) the set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior toward a goal b) the physiological and psychological arousal that occurs when a person really wants to achieve a goal c) what makes you do what you do
d) the conscious and unconscious thoughts that focus a person's behaviors and emotions in the same direction toward a goal
2. Emotion is BEST defined as _____.
a) affective feelings
b) a subjective feeling that includes arousal, cognitions, and behavioral expressions c) affective responses that are the result of external or internal stimuli d) physical or psychological responses to the fulfillment or frustration of our goals
3. Assume that you want to perform well on this test, but you feel anxious about your ability to do so. In this case, your desire to perform well is related to your _____ state, while your anxiety is related to your _____ state. a) conscious; unconscious b) unconscious; conscious c) motivational; emotionald) emotional; motivational
4. According to your textbook, motivation _____ behavior and emotion _____. a) directs; energizes itb) energizes; is the feeling responsec) follows; precedes itd) precedes; directs it
5. A behavior pattern that is unlearned, and found in almost all members of a species is called _____. p. 423 a) impossibleb) a reflexc) an instinctd) routine
6. In recent times, the case for instincts in humans has been supported by _____. a) incentive theoristsb) behavioristsc) sociobiologistsd) psychoanalysts
7. Sociobiologists emphasized that _____ are in born, genetic factors in motivation. p. 424 a) aggression b) competitionc) instinctsd) cooperation
8. In the _____ theory of motivation a lack or a deficiency of something creates a state of tension which motivates us to reduce the deficiency. p. 423 a) incentiveb) drive-reduction theoryc) state-dependentd) attribution
9. _____ is the body's tendency to maintain a relatively stable state for internal processes. p. 424 a) Homeostasisb) Heterogeneityc) Drive-inductiond) Biostability
10. In the drive-reduction theory, motivation decreases once _____ occurs. p. 423 a) exhaustionb) rewardc) homeostasisd) punishment
11. Sociobiologist, Edward O. Wilson believed that humans also had instincts like _________, are genetically transmitted from one generation to the next. p. 424 a) aggression and competitionb) competition and cooperationc) aggressiond) cooperation
12. Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched? p. 423
a) Drive-reduction theory: external stimulib) Incentive theory: external stimuli c) Cognitive theory: attributions and expectanciesd) Maslow: hierarchy of needs
13. _____ theory suggests that organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an ideal or optimal level of stimulation that maximizes their performance. p. 424 a) Drive reductionb) Incentivec) Optimal arousald) Instinct
14. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the arousal motive? p. 424 a) It is the desire for an optimum level of arousal.
b) It is rarely observed in non-human species.
c) Performance is best when an organism is in a high state of arousal. d) Performance is best when an organism is in a low state of arousal.
15. You bring a package home from the department store and your dog immediately jumps on you to investigate it; your 3-year-old niece comes to visit and opens all your kitchen cupboards to see what is inside; on a television documentary program, you see a monkey trying to open a box left in its cage. All of these are examples of _____. a) a lack of disciplineb) sensation-seeking behaviorc) the achievement motive d) the arousal motive
16. Performance is BEST for most tasks when you are experiencing _____ levels of...