Kolegij: Engleski jezik I.
DRINKING AND DRIVING
Mentor: Željka Periša Perkov, prof.
Studenti: Jakša Mijatović
Šibenik, prosinac, 2012.
Driving involves multiple tasks, the demands of which can change continually. To drive safely, one must maintain alertness, make decisions based on ever changing information present in the environment, and execute maneuvers based on these decisions. Drinking alcohol impairs a wide range of skills necessary for carrying out these tasks. Driving while drunk is dangerous and drivers with high blood alcohol content or concentration are at greatly increased risk of car accidents, highway injuries and vehicular deaths. This Alcohol Alert examines alcohol impairment of driving skills and describes some factors that increase motor vehicle crash risk. Planning is key to prevent drinking and driving, here will be some tips for preventing drinking and driving.
2. DRINKING AND DRIVING
3.1. Factors that influence crash risk
Blood alcohol concentration
The proportion of alcohol to blood in the body is expressed as the blood alcohol concentration (BAC). In the field of traffic safety, BAC is expressed as the percentage of alcohol in deciliters of blood--for example, 0.10 percent (i.e., 0.10 grams per deciliter). A 160-pound man will have a BAC of approximately 0.04 percent 1 hour after consuming two 12-ounce beers or two other standard drinks on an empty stomach (1). According to law in Croatia, operating a vehicle while having a BAC over the given limit is illegal (2). The BAC limit for young drivers and proffesional driversi s 0.00 percent, although for others limit is 0.50 percent. The many skills involved in driving are not all impaired at the same BAC's (3). For example, a driver's ability to divide attention between two or more sources of visual information can be impaired by BAC's of 0.02 percent or lower (3-5). However, it is not until BAC's of 0.05 percent or more are reached that impairment occurs consistently in eye movements, glare resistance, visual perception, reaction time, certain types of steering tasks, information processing, and other aspects of psychomotor performance (3,4,6,7). Research has documented that the risk of a motor vehicle crash increases as BAC increases (3,4,8) and that the more demanding the driving task, the greater the impairment caused by low doses of alcohol (3). Compared with drivers who have not consumed alcohol, the risk of a single-vehicle fatal crash for drivers with BAC's between 0.02 and 0.04 percent is estimated to be 1.4 times higher; for those with BAC's between 0.05 and 0.09 percent, 11.1 times higher; for drivers with BAC's between 0.10 and 0.14 percent, 48 times higher; and for those with BAC's at or above 0.15 percent, the risk is estimated to be 380 times higher (8). Youth
Youthful age has been cited as one of the most important variables related to crash risk (9). Young drivers are inexperienced not only in driving but in drinking and in combining the two activities (9). In 1994, almost 7,800 persons ages 16 through 20 were drivers in fatal motor vehicle crashes (10). Twenty-three percent of these drivers, for whom drinking any quantity of alcohol is illegal, had BAC's of 0.01 percent or higher, compared with 26 percent of drivers age 21 and older (10). According to Hingson and colleagues, each 0.02-percent increase in BAC above 0.00 percent places 16- to 20-year-old drivers at greater risk for a crash than older drivers (10). Roadside surveys indicate that young people are less likely than adults to drive after drinking; however, especially at low and moderate BAC's, their crash rates are substantially higher than those of other groups (9). Driving inexperience and immaturity are considered to be the main causes of motor vehicle crashes among drivers ages 16 to 20, even when alcohol is not...