An Investigatory Project submitted as an entry to the 2012-2013 School Based Science Fair CLUSTER II- Life Science- Group Category
AllysaAira S. Corpuz
ORION NATIONAL HIGHSCHOOL
Under the guidance of
Mrs. Miguela B. Cayabyab
Background of the study
Filipinos are fond of eating bin fast-food counters where Styrofoam, plastic cups, they become disposable, thus becoming the bulk of our garbage. They are also considered as non-biodegradable, hence, cannot be used again by other living things. The only way is to convert them to another usable form.
Moreover, due to large production of plastics, they bring pollution and deterioration in the environment. Destruction of the present surroundings results when disposing plastic continuously are not controlled.
Plastic is a synthetic material that is made by polymerizing molecules of monomer materials that are derived from coal, petroleum, or natural gas. It is a preferred material because it is lightweight, flexible, durable, versatile, and mostly affordable. It is used for manufacturing a wide range of products, including packaging for food and beverages, dishes, cooking utensils, containers, eyeglasses, computers, phones, toys, furniture, and many others. History of Plastic
The first known manmade plastic was introduced in 1862 at the Great International Exhibition in London by a man named Alexander Parkes. Called Parkesine at that time, it was an organic material from cellulose that could be molded after it was heated, and it could retain its shape when it was cooled. During the late 19th century, an American by the name of John Wesley Hyatt used celluloid to produce billiard balls, and this celluloid became known as the first thermoplastic. Further improvements were made to plastics at the turn of the 20th century. Another form of plastic called cellophane was created by Dr Jacques Brandenberger from Switzerland. This material was the first transparent fully-flexible and water-proof plastic wrap. In 1907, Leo Baekeland, a chemist from New York, invented a liquid resin called Bakelite, a thermoset plastic that was capable of retaining its shape under any condition. Bakelite was used in the manufacturing of military weapons and machines as well as electrical insulators. By the 1920s, cellophane became a very popular material around the world. Later on, a young Harvard chemist called Wallace Hume Carothers succeeded in developing nylon, which was known as Fiber 66 at that time. By the 1940s, many other polymers were introduced to the world, and these included acrylic, PVC, neoprene, polyethylene, Teflon, SaranTM, and others. In the following decade, plastic began to be used in numerous products, ranging from packaging to new textiles, and it also paved the way for the invention of innovative products such as televisions and computers. In 2007, the total consumption of plastic had reached close to 100 million tones, and this has caused significant depletion of natural resources such as petroleum and natural gas.
Throughout recorded history, humans have had the desire to decorate their living space. While our mediums and techniques were crude during prehistory, both paint and painting methods evolved tremendously in the millennia that followed. Today, the environmental impact of our paint is as important to us as its aesthetic appeal. What may seem like a simple product has, in fact, undergone many transformations over the years. Below, we recount a few of the major ones. As long ago as 38,000 B.C., people used paint made from soot, earth, and animal fat to adorn the walls of their caves. In ancient Egyptian society (3150-31 B.C.), painters mixed ground glass or semiprecious stones, lead, earth, or animal blood with oil or fat. At the end of the 1200s, English house painters formed guilds to protect trade secrets and standardize...