The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning 'search'. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577 Research and experimental development is formal work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications (OECD (2002) Frascati Manual: proposed standard practice for surveys on research and experimental development, 6th edition. It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. In lay man language research means search or find those things which are already in existence. Research work is not something which can be completed in one stroke or in one step. It consists of a number of closely related activities which very often overlap, and therefore, it becomes difficult to ascertain where one step ended and the other began. However, it is important to keep in mind that various steps are not mutually exclusive, nor they are totally separate and distinct. What step should be followed at what time depends on the research . However, the following guide-lines in this regard are significant: 1. Formulation of researcher problem-
At the very outset the researcher must choose the area in which he wants to carry on research. In the field of law the researcher has a very wide scope. After selecting the area we are required to select specific topic or subject for the study. Thus formulation of a general topic into a specific researcher problem constitutes the first step in this regard. It can be said that formulation the researcher problem involves two steps:
a) Understanding the problem thoroughly: and
b) Re-shaping that understanding into meaningful terms to arrive at a concrete result. Thus formulation of research problem is very significant for a researcher and if it is done successfully, a good deal of battle is won. 2. Extensive literature survey-
Once a problem is formulated a brief summary of it should be prepared. For this the researcher must undertake an extensive survey of the available literature on the subject: preferably connected with the problem. For this purpose the abstracting and indexing journals, published and unpublished bibliographies should first of all be examined. Academic journals, conference proceedings government reports, reference books and text books, depending on the nature of the problem must be seen.
3. Formulation of hypothesis-
When the literature relating to the problem is extensively surveyed researcher should state in clear terms the hypothesis. A hypothesis is the tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical consequences. In its most elementary stage the hypothesis may be any guess, imagination ideas which becomes the basis for action or investigation. It helps in the analysis of the material pertaining to the subject. It helps in delimiting the area of research and keeps the researcher on the right track.
4. Collection of material-
A research cannot be said to be duly carried out unless the relevant materials have been examined. But the relevant cannot be examined...
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