Exam #1 will be worth 100 points and consist of short answer/definition, listing and descriptions. SAMPLE QUESTIONS:
According to Theories of Verbal Coding, list & define the three ways in which the study of signs and/or verbal coding can be approached (6 pts). 1. semantics: how signs relate to things meaning 2. Pragmatics: how signs effect human behavior 3. Syntactic: signs relating to other signs 2. List the concepts of the Scientific Method (4 pts).
1. statement of problem (tentative hypothesis) 2. Observation 3. Classification 4. Generalization 3. According to the text, define the following: (2 pts. each) o Encoding- formulation and transmission of the message
o Context – the situation which the comm. takes place
o Chronemics – how time affects communication. Some cultures are very time conscious and punctual; others are more flexible. (owl or lark)
Define the following terms as they apply to human communication :
theory --- a body of statements that present a clear, rounded, and systematic view of a subject. attitude --- an accumulation of information. Change occurs because of new info or change of value (a predisposition to behave in a positive or negative way toward an object) noise --- anything that interferes with the comm. Process
Non-identity --- A is not A. the map is not the territory it represents artifacts --- objects that communicate, clothing, glasses, jewelry, cars, art objects, indexing --- recognizing that student #1 is not student #2 (we are all diff) entropy --- chaos, randomness, turbulence, the degree of uncertainty inartistic proofs --- not speaker controlled
abstraction --- the process of leaving out details in perceiving, thinking about and labeling objects and events multi-ordinal --- a word can mean a number of things to different people cognitive dissonance --- two cognitive elements (attitude and behavior can be irrelevant/consonant/dissonant) and dissonance- a relationship in which one element would not be expected to follow from the other. NOT a matter of logical relationship but of psychological consistency cybernetics --- control and self-regulation via communication w/an emphasis on feedback mystification --- physical and experiential separation of individuals creates mystery in various ways (a phenomenon in which average ppl bond w/note figures) Non-allness --- the map never represents all of the territory. No statement says all there is about an event Proxemics --- (space) the study of how ppl unconsciously structure microspace, the distance between ppl, objects, houses, etc. (the process of how space affects the comm. Process) Channel --- means through which message is transmitted and received Haptics --- touch, an important element in interpersonal communication information --- reduces uncertainty (involves data, process, channel, outcomes/uses paralanguage --- (vocalics) the study of how elements of the voice such as rate, pitch, volume, tone, etc. are used to communicate sarcasm, ulterior messages, etc. peripheral routing --- occurs when non-elaboration, or non-critical thinking, occurs and the listener is influenced by element extraneous to the argument itself Kinesics --- the study of how body language (facial expression, posture, gestures) affects the communication process self-reflexiveness --- we abstract from abstractions –infinitely. The reporter can report on the report of the fire. We are still interpreting translations of translations of Aristotle and Plato uncertainty reduction --- ppl seek info to reduce uncertainty; they may also create uncertainty by the info they transmit taxonomy --- motivated sequence (attention-need-satisfaction-visualization-action) (a list of related topics)
Distinguish between the types of data in theory construction. --- nominal: listing; ordinal: rank ordering; interval: statistically weighted Be familiar with Aristotle’s Classical Rhetorical Theory...
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