Dq Questions

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Thanks for the information provided about qualitative study. Your response provided valuable information to help doctorate students achieved with more confidence research papers. For most qualitative studies, it appears that there are two major issues with sampling, (1) sampling the entire population (e.g., only two people contracted a rare disease in the world and the study is conducted only with those two individuals), or (2) taking a sample of the population from which to make generalizations (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010.)  The researcher must never assume that qualitative research studies always involve the use of small samples. In fact, qualitative research can utilize large samples, as in the case of program evaluation research. Leedy & Ormrod (2010) mentioned that the association of qualitative data analyses with small samples is to ignore the growing body of literature in the area of text mining, the process of analyzing naturally occurring text in order to discover and capture semantic information.  

Leedy, P. D. & Ormrod, J. E. (2010). Practical research: Planning and design (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson.

According to Leedy & Ormrod (2010) most qualitative investigations, one or more of the following generalizations are made: (a) from the sample of words to the voice; (b) from the sample of observations to the truth space; (c) from the words of key informants to the voice of the other sample members; (d) from the words of sample members to those of one or more individuals not selected for the study; or (e) from the observations of sample members to the experience of one or more individuals not selected for the study. Each of these types of generalizations necessitates sampling decisions (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010.) 

Leedy, P. D. & Ormrod, J. E. (2010). Practical research: Planning and design (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson.

Why are small sample sizes appropriate for qualitative research?  
A small sample size may be more useful in examining a situation in dept from various perspectives, whereas a large sample would be inconsequential. The researcher making decisions on a sample size for qualitative inquiry can be even more difficult than quantitative because there are no definite rules to be followed (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010.) The selection of the sample size depends on what you want to know, the purpose of the inquiry, what is at stake, what will be useful, what will have credibility and what can be done with available time and resources. With fixed resources which are always the case, you can choose to study one specific phenomenon in depth with a smaller sample size or a bigger sample size when seeking breadth. In purposeful sampling, the sample should be judged on the basis of the purpose and rationale for each study and the sampling strategy used to achieve the studies purpose. The validity, meanings, and insights generated from qualitative inquiry have more to do with the information-richness of the cases selected and the observational/analytical capabilities of the researcher than with sample size. Leedy & Ormrod (2010) mentioned that sample size depends on the nature of the analysis to be performed, the desired precision of the estimates one wishes to achieve, the kind and number of comparisons that will be made, the number of variables that have to be examined simultaneously and how heterogeneous a universe is sampled. For example, if the key analysis of a randomized experiment consists of computing averages two variables in a project and comparing differences, then a sample under 100 might be adequate, assuming that other statistical assumptions hold. Leedy, P.D. & Ormrod, J.E. (2010). Practical research: Planning and design (9th ed.) Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson.

According to Leedy & Ormrod (2010) Ethnography is the research methodology developed by anthropologists to study human society and culture. The term ethnography has two...
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