“Instructional Materials Commonly Used by Intermediate HEKASI Teachers of Paco Catholic School” Introduction
Nowadays, social studies in Philippine school is known as Heograpiya, Kasaysayan at Sibika or HEKASI. Teaching HEKASI like any other subjects requires instructional materials that include: teacher’s manuals, exercise books, transparencies, reinforcement activities, supplementary tables, graphs, charts, maps, computer soft ware, and audio materials.
In 2009 National Achievement Test conducted in the Philippines, it was discovered that the mean percentage scores of students in HEKASI is 58.7 %. The mean score is quite below the passing percentage of 75 %. There are several factors that can affect the learning of students and there must be reasons why students got low scores in the test. One reason that can affect the student learning according to Viray (2006): “Learning in any subject or grade level relies largely on two factors namely the teacher and the instructional materials. For effective teaching, the teacher should be equipped with the necessary supplementary materials”. Also according to Thomas and Swartout (1985) “Poor teaching is due to lack of skill in selecting and using teaching methods and materials.” By considering the observation of Viray, Thomas, and Swartout it can be inferred that the learning of students is affected by the instructional materials used by their teachers and poor performance may be due to insufficiency and/or in adequate used of supplementary materials. Some authorities also observed that teachers face different problems in teaching related to the used of instructional materials. Teachers of HEKASI are not exempted from this problem about unavailability of instructional materials. According to Custodio (1992) “teachers of HEKASI encountered numerous problems ranging from unfamiliarity of which strategies, techniques unavailability of audio-visual or teaching devices related to the mastery of the content.” From the...
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