BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
It is naturally believed that, water is a non negotiable and vital resource necessary for human life, survival and development. According to Parfit(2008), ‘’Where there is no water, there is no life’’. According to Wang (1987) ‘’Water ranks first among all the basic natural resources essential to life (water, food, shelter and clothing).It makes up to 90% of human body’s volume and two-third (2/3) of its weight (Ajao 1995).Hence, water plays a crucial role in the survival of man on earth.
Water also has many uses, depending on the areas of human need. It is used for recreation, domestic and industrial purpose as well as for research works, which all occupy prominent requirements for water of standard quality. However, domestic use of water, according to (Malawi, Draft Water Act, 1999, part 1:1) is the provision of water for household and sanitary purposes and for the watering and dipping of stock. Domestically, water serves as a vital resource for drinking having got a profound power to quench thirst, bath the cells, and hydrate body tissues. It provides a physiological need for metabolic process. In cooking cleansing, and waste disposal purposes, water remains extremely important in homes (Udoma, 2005).
In spite of the important roles which water play in the survival of man, it is an establish fact that potable and safe water is not uniformly distributed over the earth surface and it is not within the reach of everyone, albeit water is the most plentiful of all natural substances. As opined by Overman (1968), the problem is one of matching supply with demand. Thus, for a man to remain efficient and in ‘’water balance’’, he must be supplied with enough water to replace the large amount he loses through the lungs, kidney, and skin (Murray &Wilson, 2000).
More so, the importance of a proper water supply has been recognised in the British Public Health Act of 1936, by which local authorities are bound to ensure that every dwelling has a sufficient supply of wholesome water. The provision of an adequate supply of water is a matter of team work to deal with the influence of the water supply on health and nutrition.
It is also expedient to stress the consequence of inadequate water supply. The low level of water supply over time often results in poor health, misery and death especially for young ones. According to Fadare and Olawuni (2008), inability to have access to water may hinder the smooth livelihood in homes and sanitation. Also, Odumosu (1995) asserted that the infant mortality rate is 170 per 1000 live birth due to poor water supply. However, most diseases contacted by people are through water usage and people’s apathy towards the type of water they use.
Therefore, this study attempts to investigate into the issue of water supply. The focus is on the supply of domestic use of water in Modakeke, Osun State and how the existing level of water supply affects health of residents in the town.
Urban areas all over the world are perceived as dynamic centres of human concentration, characterized by a wide spectrum of organized socio-economic activities. The task of providing enough quantities of water, therefore, for the rapidly growing population of urban population and ever increasing commercial and industrial activities pose a very serious challenge. According to Idoko(2000), the second world congress on water resources held in 1975 in new Delhi, India rightly observed that rapid population growth and area increasing standard of living has resulted in sharp rise for human requirement for water. In the same vein, Eznaji(1990), has also noted that there is a growing demand due to the phenomenal increase in world population and the increasing urbanised nature of its inhabitants. However, these work only focus on the problem of population on the supply of water without the impact on...