* Every employee expands physical and mental labor when they put their bodies and cognitive capabilities, respectively into their job. But job also require EMOTIONAL LABOR. * Emotional labor is an employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during inter personal transaction at work * The concept of emotional labor emerged from studies of service jobs. Airlines expect their flight attendants, for insurance, to be cheerful; we expert funeral staff to be sad; and we expert doctors to be emotionally neutral. THREE TYPES OF EMOTIONS:
1. EMOTIONAL DISSONANCE
2. FELT EMOTIONS
3. DISPLAYED EMOTIONS
I. EMOTIONAL DISSONANCE:
Inconsistencies between the emotion people feel and the emotions they project. This is disparity is emotional dissonance, and it can take a heavy toll on employees. Bottled –up feelings of frustration, anger, and resentment can eventually lead to emotional exhaustion and burnout.
II. FELT EMOTIONS:
Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions
III. DISPLAYED EMOTIONS:
Emotions are those that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job. They are not innate; they’re learned. “The ritual look of delight on the face of the first runner-up as the new miss America is announced is a product of the display rule that losers should mask their sadness with an expression of joy for the winner.” Similarly, most of us know that we’re expected to act sad at funerals, regardless of whether we considered the person’s death to be a loss, and to pretend to be happy at weddings, even if we don’t feel like celebrating.
A nurse working in a hospital is expected to express positive emotions towards patients, such as warmth and compassion.
Emotion regulation refers to the process of modifying one's own emotions and expressions. That is, the processes by which individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions. There are two kinds of Emotion regulation:
1. antecedent-focused emotion regulation, which refers to modifying initial feelings by changing the situation or the cognitions of the situation; 2. response-focused emotion regulation, which refers to modifying behavior once emotions are experienced by suppressing, faking or amplifying an emotional response.
FORMS OF EMOTIONAL LABOUR:
1. SURFACE ACTION:
Surface action is hiding one’s inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules. 2. DEEP ACTION:
Deep action is trying to modify one’s true inner feelings based on display rules. A health care provider trying to genuinely feel more empathy for her patients is deep acting.
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