Ch 15 Section 2 The Rule of the Safavids
Rise of the Safavid Dynasty
Safavids were Shiites not Sunnis.
The Safavid dynasty was founded by Shah Ismail.
1501, Ismail seized much of Iran and Iraq.
Called himself shah,Shah means king.
Shah Ismail tried to convert Ottoman Sunnis.
Massacred Sunnis at Baghdad.
Ottomans and Safavids fought many wars against each other.
Safavids used their Shiite faith as a unifying force.
Shah claimed himselfto be spiritual leader of Islam.
Glory and Decline
Under Shah Abbas the Safavids reached the high point of their empire. European countries helped Safavids against the Ottomans who were more of a threat. After Shah Abbas’s death, Shiite religious leaders began to become more powerful. Religious orthodoxy began to grow.
Orthodoxy: traditional beliefs; especially in religion.
Women were forced into seclusion and required to wear the veil. Due to an invasion by the Afghan peoples the Safavid Dynasty sank into anarchy. Anarchy is a period of Lawlessness and disorder.
Political and Social Structure
Political system was a pyramid shape.
Shah on top, government officers and land owners in the middle and common people at the bottom. Safavid rulers were eagerly supported by Shiites who believed that Shah Ismail was a direct descendant of Muhammad. Shahs tended to be more available to their subjects than other rulers. Shahs seized land from landed aristocracy.
Government appointments were based on merit not birth.
Safavids were not as prosperous as the Monguls or the Ottomans. Savafid culture
Silk weaving flourished under Safavid culture.
Carpet weaving flourished and is still in high demand to this day. Riza-I-Abbasi was the most famous artist in Safavid art.
Used soft colors and flowing movements.
Section 3: The Grandeur of the Moguls
In 1500, Indian subcontinent divided between Hindu and Muslim kingdoms. Founder of Mogul Empire was Babur.
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