Connection Development & Evaluation Centre
Prepared by: Alief Taufiqurrahman
Test Engineer

Dogleg Calculation Using strain DAQ

1 Purpose
To compare dogleg value between strain DAQ and theoretical results, during combine loading axial and bending. 2 Problem Statement Dogleg values between strain DAQ reading and theoretical results is not showing a good agreement during combine loading (i.e. Tension and Bending). The strain DAQ could not show the actual dogleg values, it shows the artificial and actual dogleg. Artificial dogleg occurred due to variation of material properties throughout the cross-section. 3 Method of Calculations 3.1 Strain DAQ V3 Uni-axial Strain method was used to calculate the dogleg, thus 4 uni-axial strain gauges were installed on each section of the specimen (total 2 sections). The setup will give 8 strain signals which eventually the strain DAQ software will calculate the dogleg values. However, the values indicate by the software is not the actual value due to variation of strain signal during tension (caused by variation of material properties on cross section). The dogleg values are shown on Figure 1. 3.2 Theoretical Values Theoretical results were obtained from the raw data generated by strain DAQ. The following formulae (see Annex E of strain DAQ manual for further detail) were used to calculate the dogleg values :

a) Determine the Bending Strain in the 0° plane for each section :

b) Determine the Bending Strain in the 90° plane for each section :

c) Calculate the Dogleg value at 0° plane for each section :

D = Specimen OD (inch)

d) Calculate the Dogleg value at 90° plane for each section :

D = Specimen OD (inch)

e) Calculate the specimen vector sum dogleg :

Theoretical Dogleg values and Strain DAQ results are shown on Figure 1 below :

Figure 1. Dogleg Comparison

Figure 1 indicates 2 different cases, case #1 is combine loading of Tension and Bending, case #2 is pure bending load applied on the...

...Heat Loss CalculationsUsing a Computer
Objective:
Using the Hevacomp computer program I am going determine the design Heat Losses and recommend methods to improve the thermal performance of the building.
Method:
The method for these calculations will be carried out on a computer using the Hevacomp software. Once the software is in use details such as internal temperature, external temperature and the air change rate need to be entered into the system followed by the surface of the room in question and the surfaces’ areas. Then for each surface you need to enter the U values as well as the air temperatures on the other side of the surface, the software will then calculate the temperature difference and fabric heat loss for each surface as well as the total heat loss for the room. This procedure then needs to be repeated for each of the other two rooms.
Results:
Room 1 (Office 1)
System – Single panel radiators
Air Change Rate – 3 a c hr¯¹
Temperatures (°C):
Resultant 21.5
Environmental 22
Air 20
Mean radiant 23
Surface Area (m²) U-Value Temperature difference Fabric Loss (w)
Exposed wall number 1 11.18 0.35 22.5 90
Exposed wall number 2 15.4 0.35 22.5 124
Int. partition number 1 16.8 1 0 0
Int. partition number 2 15.4 1 0 0
Exposed roof 33 0.35 22.5 265
Solid ground floor 33 0.45 22.5 341
Window in wall 1 5.63 2.8 22.5 362
Fabric Loss 1182
Natural Infiltration 1940
Total...

...Calculate WACC using book values:
The weight of debt is calculated by adding the current portion of long-term debt, notes payable and long-term debt, and dividing it by the sum of debt and equity.
$5.4 + 855.3 + 435.9 = $1,296.6 $1,296.6 / (1,296.6 + 3,494.5) = .27 = 27%
The weight of equity is calculated by dividing the total shareholder equity by the sum of debt and equity.
$3,494.5 / (1,296.6 + 3,494.5) = .73 = 73%
Cost of Debt
To find the cost of debt I subtracted the tax savings from the interest rate on debt.
.045(1 - .38) = 2.8%
Cost of Equity
In order to find the cost of equity I used the CAPM approach. I used the yield on 20-year U.S. Treasuries as the risk-free rate, 5.74%. To estimate the market risk premium I used the arithmetic mean of 7.50%. I used Nike's average beta, 0.80.
.0574 + (.075 - .0574).8 = 7.1%
WACC = KdWd(1 - T) + KeWe
WACC = (.028 x .27) + (.071 x .73) = 5.9%
Calculate WACC using market values:
The weight of debt is calculated by adding the current portion of long-term debt, notes payable and long-term debt, and dividing it by the sum of debt and equity.
$5.4 + 855.3 + 435.9 = $1,296.6 $1,296.6 / (1,296.6 + 11,427.43) = .10 = 10%
The weight of equity is calculated by dividing the market value of equity (price per share x # shares outstanding) by the sum of the market value of debt and equity.
$42.09 x 271.43 = $11,427.43 $11,427.43 / (11,427.43 + 1,296.6) = .90 = 90%
Cost of Debt
In order...

...CALCULATION
Before starting on any hydro power generation project it is important to survey the proposed site to calculate the amount of available hydro power.
The two important factors to consider are the flow and the head of the stream or river. The flow is the volume of water which can be captured and re-directed to turn the turbine generator, and the head is the distance the water will fall on its way to the generator. The larger the flow - i.e. the more water there is, and the higher the head - i.e. the higher the distance the water falls - the more energy is available for conversion to electricity. Double the flow and double the power, double the head and double the power again.
A low head site has a head of below 10 metres. In this case you need to have a good volume of water flow if you are to generate much electricity. A high head site has a head of above 20 metres. In this case you can get away with not having a large flow of water; because gravity will give what you have an energy boost.
The key equation to remember is the following:
Power = Head x Flow x Gravity
where; Power is measured in Watts
Head in metres
Flow in litres per second
Acceleration due to gravity in metres per second square
The acceleration due to gravity is approximately 9.81 metres per second per second - i.e. each second an object is falling, its speed increases by 9.81 metres per second (until it hits its terminal velocity).
Example:
Head = 36 m ; Flow = 40 l/s ;...

...The strain creates some pressure or incentive to engage in criminal coping
the extent of strain determines if an individual will engage in criminal coping
routine activities theory and social learning theory
certain types of strain are associated with those who model crime and the exposure of an individual to others who model criminal coping
criminal coping may be viewed as the only way to address perceived injustice and reduce perceived magnitude of that type of strain.
ex. Anderson’s (1999) discussion of the life in a poor, inner city community (disrespectful treatment)
Violence reduces feeling of injustice and can lead to status enhancement
Measuring the pressure or incentive for criminal coping
can be accomplished through the use of observational studies, surveys, and intensive interviews.
Classifying types of strain according to likelihood of leading toward crime
seen as unjust
high in magnitude
associated with low social control
create some pressure or incentive to engage in criminal coping
Predictions are made on broad types of strain
major types of strain people face
reduces accuracy
ex. unemployment relation to crime
Types of strain unrelated or weakly related to crime
strain seen as unjust
allows one to see that a wide range of strains will be unrelated to crime
reasonable accident, chance,...

...the capital gain without indexation and then reduce the notional capital gain by 50%.
Under the CGT indexation method, the capital gain is calculated as follows:
| $ |
capital proceeds | $175,000.00 |
Indexed cost base $100,000.00*1.037 | ($103,700.00) |
capital gain- indexation method | $71,300.00 |
| |
*123.4/119.0=1.037 | |
Proportion of capital gain assessable:
**= 2/194*$71,300.00
=$735.05
**: two month (01/03/1996 to 01/05/2012) out of a total of 194 months’ ownership. This is on the basis that the Burwood home remanded the main residence until 1/9/2011when settlement took place for the Camberwell home, and that John then changed his residence to the Camberwell home. It became his main residence thereafter.
Using the CGT discount method, the capital gain is $1030.93, computed as follows:
| $ |
capital proceeds | $500,000.00 |
less: cost base | ($300,000.00) |
notional capital gain | $200,000.00 |
less: 50% CGT discount | ($100,000.00) |
capital gain | $100,000.00 |
The proportion of the capital gain that is assessable is 2/194*$100,000.00=$1030.93
As the CGT indexation method gives the lower capital gain of $735.05, it should be the method chosen by John.
Because John is posted overseas and therefore will cease to use his main residence, he can elect for s118-145 to apply. As an income-producing use will be made of the dwelling while John is absent, s118-145 permits the main residence exemption to apply for a...

...Review Questions
5.1 What is asset-liability management?
Asset/liability management is the coordinated management of the entire portfolio of a financial institution. It considers both the acquisition of funds from various sources and the allocation of funds to profitable investments. The traditional focus of ALM has been on net interest income. However, it also considers market values, via duration. Finally, simulations allow other aspects of risk management to be brought into the ALM process.
5.1 Given the following information:
Assets $ Rate Liabs & Equity $ Rate
RSA $3,000 10.0% RSL $2,000 8.0%
NonRSA 1,500 9.0 NonRSL 2,000 7.0
Nonearning500 Equity 1,000
$5,000 $5,000
a. Calculate the expected net interest income at current interest rates and assuming no change in the composition of the portfolio. What is the net interest margin?
b. Assuming that all interest rates rise by 1 percentage point, calculate the new expected net interest income and net interest margin.
a. Net interest income = $3,000 (.10) + $1,500 (.09) - $2,000 (.08) - $2,000 (.07)
= $435 - $300
= $135
Net interest margin = $135/$4,500 = 0.03 or 3.0%
c. Net interest income = $3,000(0.11) +$1,500(0.09) - $2,000(0.09) - $2,000 (.07)
= $145
Net interest margin = $145/$4,500 = 0.0322 = 3.22%
(Note only rate sensitive items are impacted by the change in interest rates)
5.2 Given the...

...fractures by 'crack propagation' (i.e., it shatters), the material is brittle.
Yield Stress;
On a stress strain graph beyond the yield point(or elastic limit)the material will no longer return to its original length. This means it has become permanently deformed. Therefore the yield stress is the level of stress at which a material will deform permanently. This is also known as yield strength.
Young's Modulus;
Young's Modulus is a measure of the stiffness of a material. It states how much a material will stretch (i.e., how much strain it will undergo) as a result of a given amount of stress. The formula for calculating it is:
The values for stress and strain must be taken at as low a stress level as possible, provided a difference in the length of the sample can be measured. Strain is unitless so Young's Modulus has the same units as stress, i.e. N/m² or Pa.
Stress-Strain Graphs;
Stress–strain curve for low-carb;
Stress (σ) can be graphed against strain (ε). The toughness of a material (i.e., how much it resists stress, in J m-3) is equal to the area under the curve, between the y-axis and the fracture point. Graphs such as the one on the right show how stress affects a material. This image shows the stress-strain graph for low-carbon steel. It has three main features:
Elastic Region;
In this region (between the origin and point 2), the ratio of...

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