Does Neo-Liberalism Or Neo-Marxism Provide The Most Credible Account Of International Politics? (The Answer Should Discuss With the Reference to the Films “Independence Day “And the New Rulers of the World".
The significance of neo-Marxism and Marxism, as theories shaping world development, has been subjected to a great deal of debates, particularly after the end of the Cold War. However, the emergence of numerous problems in many countries around the world, especially those associated with vagaries of neo-liberalism and capitalism, the application of these theories in international politics has become eminent in the modern times (Doyle, 1986). Notably, there exist a struggle between the “old world” and the “new world” i.e. the developing and developed states. In an attempt to explain this scenario and reasons for occurrence of associated events, insights contributed by neo-Marxists have been utilized. Neo-Marxists believe that economics is the driving force behind international politics or relations. This contradicts with the views of liberalists who stated that security determines international politics. The economic conditions prevailing in undeveloped and developing countries have forced them to depend on rich industrialized countries. In turn, this has opened room for industrialised states to exploit the poor countries through integrated capitalist policies. Neo-Marxists have attempted to analyse present global economic conditions using Marxists ideas. Between 1960s and 1970s, proponents of neo-Marxism examined and demonstrated the negative impact of capitalist policies on development in the “old world.” They have also shown how these policies have contributed to increased inequality between developed and developing countries. It is the purpose of this essay paper to analyse the significance of neo-Marxism theories on international politics with reference to films of “Independence Day” and the New Rulers of the World (Doyle, 1986). Neo-Marxists have strongly denounced views of liberalists on how states cooperate as the primary means of achieving development. Instead, they have advocated that states should focus on economic aspects for the benefit of both developing and developed countries. Liberalism concepts are mere self-serving ideologies brought in by the rich industrialized states purposely to defend global inequality. The “new world” has constructed international system with the sole aim of protecting and defending their interests (Dougherty & Pfaltzgraff, 2001). One of the basic tenets of neo-Marxists is that the new rulers have divided the world into economically determined classes instead of politically determined states. In effect, economics have superceded politics. This situation was witnessed long time ago. For example, the US strategists, who included Zbigniew Brzezinski, Henry Kissinger and Samuel Huntington, advocated for realist concepts with the aim of making their own country superior to others. According to Budd (2010), realism perspective encourages a struggle between states. The rulers of the new world have produced world system theories, which have propagated inequality to the global economy (Chigora & Ziso, 2010). Neo-Marxists support that the neo-liberal economics are the basis of developmental problems in some countries, which has hampered international relations. Instead of protecting global markets and production, the new rulers of the world have promoted openness on the ground that it facilitates efficient and effective use of resources. They have also advocated for the adoption of neo-liberal ideas arguing that they allow free flow of technology and open opportunities for economic growth and development in the member states. The new rulers of the world suggest that, once the countries agree to implement these measures, entrepreneurs would be able to accumulate...
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