Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia.
Malaysia is one of the developing countries that affected by the globalization process and emerging economic environment throughout the world. To be sustain in future, Malaysia organization especially should cope and response effectively with the changes in economic sector. But, has the management accounting information can help the manager in making good decision for their organization? Does management accounting in Malaysia also evolve or changes due to an emerging economic environment? Research papers on Relevance Lost: The rise and Falls of Management Accounting and Evolution of Management Accounting (IFAC, 1998) will be discussed further in this research in order to have better understanding about changes and evolution of management accounting in Malaysia. This research done by reviewing the prior research, articles, thesis and journals. The changes and evolution has been found based on the reviewed of prior research. Introduction
Research papers on Relevance Lost by Johnson and Kaplan found and gave us the picture of the rise and fall of management accounting throughout the centuries. The authors explored about nineteenth-century cost management system, efficiency, profit and scientific management on 1880 to 1910 until management lost its relevance on 1980s. Furthermore they analysed and explored the new global competition and new systems for process control and product costing and also performance measurement system for the future. In nineteeth- century, companies having a transformation process from two or more process into a single economic activity. In all cases, the information focus on how to improve the process of managing the resources effectively and also do determine the sources of companies profit. In late nineteenth-century, conversion cost system was emerged to systematic management where focused on determination of correct information about efficiency of workers in mass-produced complex machine –made. Taylor and Emerson devised new accounting procedures to assess the efficiency of the task and processes in complex machine-making firms. Futhermore, Church’s devices to use product costing in order to determine how much profit of individual product contribute to the firm’s overall profitability. But, G. P Norton rely on th standard cost information and comparing an integrated multiprocesstextile company’s performance with profit earned internally. After 1900, the integrated firms developed system to track the performance of the company and use one common denominator, return on investment that give attention to the amount of capital invested in the enterprise. Furthermore, after 1900, based on discussion on cost accounting’s lost relevance for cost management, the managers not compile accurate product costs data and affect their judgement on the costs and benefits of such information not lost sense of the relevant information to management decision. The inventory costs information did not reflect the accurate guide to determine the product cost and in complex real-word setting, it also not relevant for actual management decisions. When multidivisional organization first appear around 1920, they used ROI (return on investment) targets to assess the performance of managers. On 1980s, the author claimed that contemporary management accounting systems were became obsolete and affected the large organization. The information provided were not help in reflected the effective and efficiency of internal process. Besides that, the organization were became vulnerable to competiton and more focused organization. In the nest chapter, authors discussed the new global competiton of the 1980s. The revolution of economic condition were contributed by the Japanese manufacturing where develop the innovative practice in management accounting such as total quality management,...