Is an individual’s cognitive estimate of his or her “capabilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources, and courses of actions needed to exercise control over events in their lives”. (Wood and Bandura 1989) Some conceptual and Measurement Issues of Self-Efficacy
-Reciprocal Causation of Self-Efficacy and Performance
When trying to distinguish the social learning theory from many traditional psychological theories by emphasizing reciprocal causation among cognition, traditional unidirectional theories depict human behavior as caused either by environment events on internal depositions. In social learning theories explain human behavior in terms of “Triadic reciprocal causation behavior”, cognitive and other personal factors, and environment events. Each of the three factors affects and affected by the other two. The notion of reciprocal causation is important in understanding self-efficacy and its determinants and effects. People with high self-efficacy have more intrinsic interest in the tasks and more willing to expend their effort and show more persistence in the face of obstacles and setback; as a result they are more effectively. Performance accomplishments are found to be the most influential in shaping and estimating one’s self-efficacy, self efficacy affect s performance through interest, motivation, and perseverance, whereas performance provides feedback information on the basis of self-efficacy is further evaluated and modified. Also there is a positive correlation between self-efficacy and performance accomplishment. -Expectancy Theory and Self-Efficacy
Expectancy theory is also cognitive and is based on two expectations: 1-Probability that effort will lead to performance level.
2-Probability that performance will lead to outcome.
In compare with self efficacy we can noticed that the self efficacy concerned with the execution of an action, not its outcome. -Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control