Does Elevation Head of the Bed Reduce Risk Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

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Title:
Does elevating the head of the bed reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)?

Introduction:
According to Polit and Beck (2012,p.3) “research is a systematic review inquiry that uses disciplined methods to answer a question or solve problems. The ultimate goal of research is to develop, improve and expand knowledge”. Research in nursing can produce new knowledge into nursing practice, develop and improve methods of caring and trial the efficacy of care (Gerrish, K and Lacey A, 2007). However, research according to Hockey (1984) in the first edition of the book, research is an attempt to increase the sum of what is known, usually referred to as a “body of knowledge” by the discovery of new facts or relationships through a process of systematic scientific enquiry, the research process’ (Hockey 1984:4, cited by Gerrish, K and Lacey A, 2007). This essay has few parts to explain how research topic and question are developed. This essay will tell where and how to search for relevant facts. This essay will focus on the critique part as well. Two selected journal articles will be critiqued, discussed, to recommend and evaluate the strength and the weakness of the published.

Main body:

Developing the topic:

Topic will be chosen first by writer and learn deeply about the content of the journal of a research study.

Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined by the American Thoracic Society (1996) as nosocomial pneumonia that occurs after the first 48 hours of intubation and mechanically ventilated (cited K. Libby, 2007). Ventilator associated pneumonia is the main cause of mortality and greater impact on morbidity of patients that are hospitalized and ventilated in ICU (Tablan et al, 2004; Chastre and Fagon, 2002; Rello et al, 2002 cited by Masseli, D.J and Restrepo, M.I 2011). Strategies have been developed to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Developing the question:

According to Polit, D.F (2010) research questions are the particular queries researchers desire to answer in accessing the problem of the research. Nursing research is an organized enquiry that desires to increase new nursing enlightenment to profit patients, families and communities. It comprises all phases of health that are of enchant to nursing, inclusive upgrade of health, prevention of disease, care of humans of all ages during illness and recovery or against a peaceful and honorable death (International Council of Nursing, 2009). The Department of Health defines as the experiment to acquire generalizable new knowledge by addressing clearly determined questions with orderly and accurate methods (cited by Gerrish K and Lacey A, 2007). According to Dr. Alkassab (2008) PICO is a useable model to assist to structure an answerable question and used to explicate clinical questions. PICO has 4 components to breakdown the question. P – patient or problem, I – Intervention (type of treatment or prevention), C – Comparison (comparison intervention, alternative. for example another intervention, standard treatment or placebo), O – Outcome (the effect or outcome for example cost effectiveness, benefit, improvement of symptom or quality of patient / life.

Background question:

Asking the right question is fundamental to the evidence base practice. By elevating the head of the bed to 30 to 45 degrees, can the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia be reduced?

What is the best position of the ventilated patient in regard to minimizing the likelihood of ventilator-associated pneumonia?

Below is the example related to the title.

‘In intubated and mechanically ventilated patients, does elevating the head of the bed reduce the risk of VAP comparison 2 groups reduce the risk of ventilator associated pneumonia’ THIS SENTENCE DOESN’T MAKE SENSE.

P- Patient with mechanically intubated and ventilated developed ventilator associated pneumonia

I – Does elevating the head of the bed reduce the...
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