________CIPA 2005 XX International Symposium, 26 September – 01 October, 2005, Torino, Italy________
DOCUMENTATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AND MONUMENTS: ANCIENT THEATRES IN JERASH N. Haddad, T. Akasheh Dept. of Conservation Science, Queen Rania’s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, the Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115, Jordan, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
KEY WORDS: documentation, immovable cultural heritage, 3D laser Scanner, Photomodeler, theatres of Jerash. ABSTRACT Modern technology has changed matters in documentation significantly and promises to continue to bring change. This paper attempts to present:1-How should we understand documentation of archaeological Sites, historic buildings and monuments according to their particularities, categories, types, components of documentation, taking into account the internationally agreed standards for the documentation of the cultural heritage. 2- The potential of the application of 3D laser Scanner and Photomodeler in documentation of the immovable cultural heritage. As a case study the ancient theatres of Jerash (the Southern and the Northern) will be presented. While the purpose of using different methods of documentation is to make comparison comparison of the advantages ,disadvantages ,the accuracy of the traditional method – total station –, 3D scanner method, and Photomodeler method. 1. INTRODUCTION As cultural heritage is a unique expression of human achievement, and since this cultural heritage is continuously at risk, documentation is one of the principal ways available to give meaning, understanding, definition and recognition of the values of the cultural heritage. As such it constitutes an important basis of orientation for subsequent restoration and maintenance measures. Furthermore all interventions acquire the character of evidence themselves and therefore, have to be documented. Article 16 of the Venice Charter emphasizes that in all works of preservation or excavation, there should always be precise documentation in the form of analytical and critical reports, illustrated with drawings and photographs. Every stage of the work, including technical and formal features identified during the course of the work, should be included. This record should be placed in the archives of a public institution and made available to research workers. It is recommended that the report should be published. Thus documenting the Cultural Heritage not only describes the context in which the materials were found, and their relationship in space and time to geological deposits and large architectural features, but also as monitoring of the remains of past human activities. The documentation process, which may be undertaken as an aid to various CRM activities, such as protection, identification, monitoring, interpretation, registration of stolen cultural objects, can benefit tremendously from various modern techniques that are available to us nowadays. (graphic documentation) Techniques based on conventional surveying to produce plans, elevations, and architectural details. Photographic e.g. photography, rectified photography,computer-rectified photography, photogrammetry, and 3D laser scanner. The photographical documentation should provide information on the important condition of a monument, i.e. before, during, and after restoration. 3. INTERNATIONAL CORE DATA INDEX There are three internationally agreed standards for the documentation of the cultural heritage: a) The Core Data Index to Historic Buildings and Monuments of the Architectural Heritage (1992), b) The Core Data Standard for Archaeological Sites and Monuments (1995), and c) The Object ID (1997) which was developed to provide an international standard for the information needed to identify cultural objects, in response to the threat posed by the illicit trade in the movable heritage. The evaluation of the documentation process can be carried out by comparison with such standards. Other...
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