What do you mean by counseling? What are the different types of counseling? Also suggest some case studies.

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Counseling is the means by which one person helps another through purposeful conversation. Counselling is a process in which two people meet to explore personal problems and to identify solutions. Counseling is a process through which one person helps another by purposeful conversation in an understanding atmosphere. It seeks to establish a helping relationship in which the one counseled can express their thoughts and feelings in such a way as to clarify their own situation, come to terms with some new experience, see their difficulty more objectively, and so face their problem with less anxiety and tension.

Counselling attempts to correct performance through face-to-face communication and problem solving. Counselling is one of three important tools a supervisor can use to improve employee performance and behaviors. Employee counsellng is defined as a discussion between the supervisor and the employee about the real or perceived performance deficiency or job-related behaviors

Verbal Counselling: Verbal counseling sessions may take place between employees and supervisors in situations that are deemed less serious in nature. Every effort to determine and resolve the cause of the problem should be made. At the same time, however, it should be specifically stated that the employee is receiving a formal warning. Documentation of the verbal counseling should be made and maintained in departmental files for verbal counseling sessions.

Written Counseling: Written counseling sessions take place between a supervisor and an employee when the behavior of the employee: is a repeated violation and verbal counseling has been administered; hinders the progress of the department in which the employee works; or hampers the progress of the University. Written warnings should be documented on a Corrective Counseling Form (available from the forms section of the Human Resources website). Copies of all written warnings should be distributed as follows: one copy to the employee, one copy to the University's Department of Human Resources for inclusion in the employee's file, and one copy maintained in departmental files under lock and key.

Definition of counseling usually involve some or all of the following : Two people are present , The process leads to action on the part of the client , The counselor is a person who listens , The client can be trusted to find their own solutions , Personal growth of the client usually occurs , Resolution of problems is an expectation

Counselling is not usually concerned with: Advice-giving on the part of the counselor, Psychotherapy, Treatment of severe mental illness, solving all life's problems

When a counseling relationship develops, it is not uncommon to see certain stages being worked through .These may be identified as follow:

1. Getting started

2. Introductory talk

3. Identifying the issues

4. Coping with feeling

5. Identified possible solutions

6. Agreeing a plan

7. Implementation

Getting started: Here, the counselor and the client meet and get to know each other. Often, the client will b nervous and will not know what to say. In this stage of the relationship, it is usually helpful if the counselor plays the dominant role and helps the client to relax, settle down and focus on why they are there. In this stage , it is useful if the counselor clarifies the following issues with the client : The frequency with the which they will meet , The time they will meet , When it is anticipated that the relationship will end , Whether or not the two can talk confidentially.

Also it is helpful if the counselor indicates that anything can be talked about. This creates the opportunity for the client to talk about what he or she wants to talk about.

Introductory talk: Most people come to a counselor with only a vague sense what it is thy really want to talk about. Many start from a general conversation about their lives and then work towards specifics. It seems likely...
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