According to Hogg and Vaughan (2011), attitude is a relatively enduring organisation of feelings, beliefs and behavioural towards socially significant objects, groups, symbols or events. It can be also define as a general feeling or evaluation (positive or negative) about some person, object or issue. Attitudes can be form in four different ways which are mere exposure, self-perception, associate learning and functional reason. Mere exposure is the more exposure, more positive feeling to a stimulus and no action is required. Associative learning is divided to classical conditioning (implicit) and operant conditioning (explicit). Implicit has no action is require in participant while explicit is participant must carry out actions such as rewarded or punish. Self-perception is attitude formed through observation of our own behavior. Functional reasons are attitudes form to satisfy psychological need.
Behavior refers to the actions and mannerisms made by systems, organisms, or artificial entities in conjunction with its environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment.
Attitudes and behaviours must be measured at the same level of specificity. For example, “attitude-behaviour consistency can be varying according to whether: an attitude is more rather than less accessible; an attitude is expressed privately or publicly such as when answering a questionnaire; an individual identifies strongly or weakly with a group for which the attitude is formative.” ( Hogg and Vaughan , 2011, p.155)
Better prediction depends on accounting for the interaction between attitudes, beliefs and behavioral intentions. In this equation, we need to establish the level of a person’s belief (how strong or how valuable). For example, a young and heterosexually active man’s belief towards two methods of... [continues]
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