December 02, 2012
Associate Program Material
Answer the following in at least 100 words:
1. Describe the structure of DNA.
A DNA molecule which is abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid is made up of very long chains of monomers and polymers that are called nucleotides. These two chains in particular which composes of DNA strain are then formed by the grouping of the nucleotides into the polynucleotides. The nucleotide is made up of a nitrogenous base, of sugar and of a phosphate group. In the DNA case, there are four nucleotides that are found along the DNA chain, the four nucleotides ate (T) thyme, (A) adenine, (C) cytosine, and (G) guanine. These four nucleotides are joined together by their covalent bonds, or more specific, the phosphates and the sugar which composes the sugar/phosphate back bone of the polynucleotide.
2. How does an organism’s genotype determine its phenotype?
The genotype of an organism is the genetic makeup of that organism, it is the nucleotide bases in the organism’s DNA. The phenotype is considered the physical traits of the organism which comes from the actions of the broad variety of proteins. The body of an organism is made up by the structural proteins and the metabolic activities are catalyzed by the enzymes. The synthesis of the proteins is specified by the DNA. However, a protein is not directly built by a gene, but dispatches the instructions to do so in the form of the RNA, which in turn programs the synthesis of the protein.
3. Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait.
“A sequence of nucleotides in the DNA is transcribed into a molecule of RNA in the cell’s nucleus. The RNA travels to the cytoplasm, where it is translated into the specific amino acid sequence of a protein.” (Eric J. Simon, Jane B. Reece, and Jean L. Dickey)