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The term DNA sequencing refers to sequencing methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a molecule of DNA.
Knowledge of DNA sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, other research branches utilizing DNA sequencing, and in numerous applied fields such as diagnostic, biotechnology, forensic biology and biologicalsystematics. The advent of DNA sequencing has significantly accelerated biological research and discovery. The rapid speed of sequencing attained with modern DNA sequencing technology has been instrumental in the sequencing of thehuman genome, in the Human Genome Project. Related projects, often by scientific collaboration across continents, have generated the complete DNA sequences of many animal, plant, and microbial genomes.
The first DNA sequences were obtained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography. Following the development of dye-based sequencing methods with automated analysis,DNA sequencing has become easier and orders of magnitude[clarification needed] faster.
DNA Sequence Trace
|Contents | | [hide] | |1 History | |2 Maxam–Gilbert sequencing | |3 Chain-termination methods | |3.1 Dye-terminator sequencing | |3.2 Challenges | |3.3 Automation and sample preparation | |4 Large-scale sequencing strategies | |5 New sequencing methods | |5.1 High-throughput sequencing | |5.1.1 In vitro clonal amplification | |5.1.2 Parallelized sequencing | |5.1.3 Sequencing by ligation | |5.1.4 Microfluidic Sanger sequencing | |5.2 Other sequencing technologies | |6 Major landmarks in DNA sequencing | |7 See also | |8 References | |9 External links |
RNA sequencing was one of the earliest forms of nucleotide sequencing. The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, identified and published by Walter Fiers and his coworkers at the University of Ghent (Ghent, Belgium), between 1972 and 1976.
Prior to the development of rapid DNA sequencing methods in the early 1970s by Frederick Sanger at the University of Cambridge, in England and Walter Gilbert and Allan Maxam at Harvard, a number of laborious methods were used. For instance, in 1973, Gilbert and Maxam reported the sequence of 24 basepairs using a method known as wandering-spot analysis.
The chain-termination method developed by Sanger and coworkers in 1975 soon became the method of choice, owing to its relative ease and reliability.
In 1976–1977, Allan Maxam and Walter Gilbert developed a DNA sequencing method based on chemical modification of DNA and subsequent cleavage at specific bases. Although Maxam and Gilbert published their chemical sequencing method two years after the ground-breaking...