Aim : To extract the DNA from an egg yolk using various enzymes and to compare with other groups the most effective way to extract DNA.
To be able to observe white springy substances after mixing with enzyme and alcohol.
Apparatus : -Test tube, spatula, glass rod, dropper, beaker, test tube rack, skewer. Materials : - 1 egg, meat tenderizer, salt, water , soap, isopropyl alcohol 91%, pineapple juice.
Manipulated Variable : Responding Variable : Constant Variable : The different type of enzyme used. Identify the white springy substance as the DNA. The amount of egg yolk in test tube, the drops of enzymes.
Procedure : 1. The egg is cracked open and gently separate the yolk from the white into a small bowl. 2. Then add a spoonful of salt and a few drops of water to the yolk. 3. Use a glass rod and mix the mixture. 4. Take a spoonful of dish soap and mix into the mixture for 5 minutes. 5. The 3 test tubes will be then filled with small amount of yolk mixture using a dropper. 6. A pinch of meat tenderizer will be added into each test tube. 7. The test tube is then added with isopropyl alcohol carefully by using a dropper. 8. Observe and record the results, repeat step 1-6 with another 3 test tube by using pineapple juice as the enzyme.
Figure 1.1 : The arrow shows the white springy
substance as DNA. Visibility is low.
Figure 1.2 : The arrow shows a visible image of
DNA ﬂoats on the surface of alcohol.
After adding 3 drops of isopropyl alcohol and meat tenderizer in the egg yolk solution, after a few minutes you are able to observe a little DNA white springy substance. Once DNA is visible it rose into the clear alcohol that also floats on water. On the test 3 and test 4 , we added 5 drops of isopropyl alcohol into both 3 small test tubes and to investigate the differences of enzyme affecting the visibility of DNA.
Figure 1.3 : Shows the white springy
substance from meat tenderizer as an
Figure 1.4 : Shows the white springy
substance from pineapple as an enzyme.
As you can see from the observation above, 3 drops of isopropyl alcohol did not show much of a difference into extracting a large scale of DNA compared to dropping of 5 drops of isopropyl alcohol. In our group we did 2 test on how enzyme affects the DNA. The figure 1.3 and figure 1.4 shows how clearly meat tenderizer with isopropyl alcohol performs a better enzyme compared to pineapple juice. It breaks down the nucleus to release DNA better than pineapple juice. To examine this it is just by looking at the image the amount of white springy
Test Test 1 (Meat Tenderizer,3 drops isopropyl) Test 2 (Pineapple Juice,3 drops isopropyl) Test 3 (Meat Tenderizer,5 drops isopropyl) Test 4 (Pineapple Juice,5 drops isopropyl) Is the DNA visible ? Yes, but a little only. No. Yes, its very visible. Yes, but a little only.
On the first test we actually did 3 drops of isopropyl alcohol, we then see the result it was difficult to distinguish between the egg yolk and the DNA. On third test, we added 5 drops of isopropyl alcohol and the results came in few minutes, we are then able to see the DNA clearly as white stringy substance appears. On the second test we tried a different type of enzyme, pineapple juice. We started off with 3 drops of pineapple juice, few minutes later there is no difference to the egg yolk, then on test 2 we did on the 5 drops of pineapple juice and there are DNA but it is very hard to notice the white stringy substance of DNA.
Source of Enzyme Meat Tenderizer Results Meat tenderizer acts as a catalyst to break down, it breaks the open the cell nucleus to release the DNA. The juice of the pineapple contains Bromelain , a substance which able to break down protein into amino acid.
Figure 1.5 : My Group