In 1992, The United States, Federal Bureau of Investigation funded the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS). It is a computer system that stores DNA profiles created by federal, state, and local crime laboratories in the United States, with the ability to search the database in its entirety; it also helps agencies identify suspects of crime.
The origin of CODIS is attributed to the Scientific Working groups (SWG) that began in the late 80’s. SWG was backed by the FBI Laboratory which hosted several scientific meetings a year in Quantico, Virginia. Years later the FBI lead a project with six state and local crime laboratories to develop a software tool, to support each lab with DNA testing and sharing the DNA profiles with other crime laboratories . In, 1994 the DNA Identification Act, authorized the FBI to operate CODIS and set national standards until recommendations were made by the DNA advisory board required under the act. Even though the Act was passed in 1994, CODIS did not become operational until 1998.
CODIS assist the crime laboratories to compare and exchange DNA profiles. A record in the Codis database, known as CODIS DNA profile, consists of an individuals DNA profile, along with a sample identifier and an identifier of the laboratory responsible for the profile. CODIS is not a criminal history database, like the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) and does not hold any personal information, like names, dates of birth, and social security number.
Originally, CODIS consisted of the Convicted Offender Index and the Forensic Index, but in recent years, the Arrestee Index, the Missing Persons Index, and the Missing Persons Reference Index have been added. The Convicted Offender Index contains profiles of individuals convicted of crimes. State law governs which specific crimes are eligible for CODIS. (All 50 states have passed DNA legislation authorizing the collection of DNA profiles from convicted offenders for submission...
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