According to Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly, and Konopaske the Maslow’s need hierarchy depends on what people already have and then grows up hierarchically, when the Alderfer’s states that needs depends more on three factors: existence, relatedness and growth. Maslow’s needs are more of pyramid, going from the simplest needs to the more complex one to fulfill being from bottom to top: 1) Physiological
2) Safety and security
3) Belongingness, social and love
5) Self Actualization
As we stated before, Alderfer states that these are the only three needs, that people need to satisfy: 1) Existence
The first major difference is obviously the number of steps and needs to fulfill, five according to Maslow and only three according to Alderfer. The second difference that could be noticed between theories is that according to Alderfer, not only you need the lower level satisfied in order to move to another level of need as Maslow stated, but that a frustration process can occur in case of a regression to the previous step (level). Alderfer includes a psychological factor that Maslow hierarchy of need does not include. According to Alderfer, the need of growth can be blocked by the first two steps and create a frustration in case it could not be satisfied by the individual.
2. Goal setting is a powerful tool that managers can use to direct employee behavior. However under what conditions can goal setting lead to undesirable employee outcomes?
Goal setting is a powerful tool, because it appears that when people sets themselves a goal, the will act in a manner that will allow them to fulfill this goal. Their behavior will be lead toward the fulfilling of this goal. According to Gibson, Ivancevich, Donnelly, and Konopaske : “Once a person starts something, she pushes on until a goal is achieved.”. When a...