DISTRIBUTIONS TO SHAREHOLDERS:
DIVIDENDS AND SHARE REPURCHASES
(Difficulty: E = Easy, M = Medium, and T = Tough)
Multiple Choice: Conceptual
Dividends versus capital gainsAnswer: d Diff: E
[i].Myron Gordon and John Lintner believe that the required return on equity increases as the dividend payout ratio is decreased. Their argument is based on the assumption that
a.Investors are indifferent between dividends and capital gains. b.Investors require that the dividend yield and capital gains yield equal a constant. c.Capital gains are taxed at a higher rate than dividends. d.Investors view dividends as being less risky than potential future capital gains. e.Investors value a dollar of expected capital gains more highly than a dollar of expected dividends because of the lower tax rate on capital gains.
Dividends, DRIPs, and repurchasesAnswer: d Diff: E
[ii].Which of the following statements is most correct?
a.In general, stock repurchases are taxed the same way as dividends. b.One nice feature of dividend reinvestment plans is that they enable investors to reduce the taxes paid on their dividends. c.On average, companies send a negative signal to the marketplace when they announce an increase in their dividend. d.If a company is interested in issuing new equity capital, a new stock dividend reinvestment plan probably makes more sense than an open market dividend reinvestment plan. e.Statements b and d are correct.
Dividend payoutAnswer: a Diff: E
[iii].In the real world, we find that dividends
a.Usually exhibit greater stability than earnings.
b.Fluctuate more widely than earnings.
c.Tend to be a lower percentage of earnings for mature firms. d.Are usually changed every year to reflect earnings changes. e.Are usually set as a fixed percentage of earnings.
Dividend payoutAnswer: c Diff: E
[iv].A decrease in a firm’s willingness to pay dividends is likely to result from an increase in its
b.Access to capital markets.
c.Profitable investment opportunities.
d.Collection of accounts receivable.
Dividend theoriesAnswer: e Diff: E
[v].Which of the following statements best describes the theories of investors’ preferences for dividends?
a.Modigliani and Miller argue that investors prefer dividends to capital gains. b.The bird-in-hand theory suggests that a company can reduce its cost of equity capital by reducing its dividend payout ratio. c.The tax preference theory suggests that a company can increase its stock price by increasing its dividend payout ratio. d.One key advantage of a residual dividend policy is that it enables a company to follow a stable dividend policy. e.The clientele effect suggests that companies should follow a stable dividend policy.
Dividend theory and policyAnswer: c Diff: E
[vi].Which of the following statements is most correct?
a.The bird-in-the-hand theory implies that a company can reduce its WACC by reducing its dividend payout. b.The bird-in-the-hand theory implies that a company can increase its stock price by reducing its dividend payout. c.One problem with following a residual dividend policy is that it can lead to erratic dividend payouts that may prevent the firm from establishing a reliable clientele of investors who prefer a particular dividend policy. d.Statements a and c are correct.
e.All of the statements above are correct.
Optimal dividend policyAnswer: e Diff: E
[vii].Which of the following would not have an influence on the optimal dividend policy?
a.The possibility of accelerating or delaying investment projects. b.A strong shareholders’ preference for current income versus capital gains. c.Bond indenture...