Distinguish between functionalist and conflict views of sex differentiation in society.
In sociological terms, there are many different ways to view a society. Of those ways, two are the most prominent - the functionalist theory and conflict theory. In the view of a functionalist, a society is like a living organism in which each part contributes to the survival of the whole (Schaefer, 2008, p. 16). A major part of this theory is that if a certain aspect of social life does not contribute to a society's survival or stability, it will not be passed from one generation to the next (Schaefer, 2008, p. 16). This, however, does not explain why prejudice, racism and discrimination persist. Conflict theory, on the other hand, allows one to see the world in a constant struggle between the privileged (dominant group) and the exploited (subordinate groups), with each fighting over scarce resources (Schaefer, 2008, p. 17). Each perspective maintains a different thought stream when considering sex differentiation.
Functionalists maintain that sex differentiation has contributed to overall social stability, stating that in order to function most efficiently, a family needs adults who specialize in particular roles (Schaefer, 2008, p. 404). A division based on gender seems purely convenient, rather than necessary. Functionalists see potential social disorder or at least unknown social consequences, if all aspects of traditional sex differentiation are disturbed (Schaefer, 2008, p. 405).
Conflict theorists do not deny the presence of a...