05 September 2011
Organic Chemistry Lab: Experiment 1
Section 2 – 12:30 to 2:20
Distillation and Fractional Distillation
Distillation and Fraction Distillations
The purpose of distillation is to purify a liquid. Distillations are use to purify contaminates out of water to obtain clean pure water, as well as, to separate mixtures of liquids into their individual components; e.g. methanol and water. Objective:
Distill methanol from water using a simple distillation apparatus and fractional distillation apparatus to determine which is a more accurate form of distillation. Chemical reaction and mechanism:
This experiment is conducted in three phases:
1) Phase I: Simple Distillation of a Pure Compound
2) Phase II: Simple Distillation of a Mixture
3) Phase III: Fractional Distillation of a Mixture
Phase I: Simple Distillation of a Pure Compound
Distill a 15 mL sample of methanol in a 50 mL boiling flask using a simple distillation apparatus. Ensure a boiling stone was added to the boiling flask before attaching to the distillation apparatus. Additionally before the distillation began, all pieces of the apparatus were secured with ring stands and clamps and the heating mantle was able to be adjusted to prevent heating to fast. The temperature of the sample was recorded when the first drop of distilled solution was collected and every mL afterwards. Heating was stopped before the 15 mL sample dries to prevent shattering of the boiling flask. Additionally each mL of distilled solution was weighed and the refractive index was identified.
Phase II: Simple Distillation of a Mixture
Set up a simple distillation apparatus as in Phase I. In a 50 mL boiling flask, 7 mL of methanol and 7 mL of water, as well as, a boiling stone were added. The boiling flask was attached to the apparatus and heating was started. The temperature was recorded when the first drop of distilled solution was...